Madnotes1 MADISON'S PRESIDENCY, 1809 TO 1817 • 1. Madison’s attempts at US Neutrality • Causes of War of 1812 • Impressment • War Hawks • Tecumseh • Defend American neutrality • 2nd War of Independence:vs. Great Britain • Mr. Madison’s War---War of 1812 • Misc. Information and lst’s • War strategy • Francis Scott Key= “National Anthem” • British burn White House • War heroes • William Henry Harrison • Andrew Jackson • Battle of New Orleans--1815
Madnotes2 • 3. Outcomes: • War----a stalemate • Treaty of Ghent • Hartford Convention • War’s Legacy • US defends it’s neutrality • Respect from Europe • 4. President James Monroe, 1817 to 1825 • Era of Good Feelings • Monroe Doctrine
madwar President James Madison • Born in Virginia, 1751 • Enlisted in Continental Army but too small • Attended Princeton University and became a lawyer. • Father of the Constitution and Bill of Rights. • Secretary of State during Jefferson’s Presidency • President, 1809 to 1817 • Most known for defending US Neutrality during the War of 1812. President James Madison
WAR OF 1812 Non-Intercourse Act1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2. Macon’s Bill No. 21810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
WAR OF 1812 Dupe of Napoleon • November, 1810: Madison announces nonimportation against Britain • Results in political ties with France • Major foreign policy mistake • August, 1810: in response, Napoleon (lying) announced decrees (stop impressing US ships) had been repealed Napoleon
The War of 1812 2nd War of Independence Mr. Madison’s War War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812. NEXT
impressment IMPRESSMENT • France and Great Britain are at war • Both sides were impressing US ships. • An act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy • England closed ports under French control to foreign shipping (incl. US), seized US ships & impressed Americans. • Napoleon ordered seizure of all merchant ships that entered British ports.
MR. MADISON'S WAR madwar War of 1812 • War Hawks • New members of Congress, John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay want war why Great Britain….Why? • U.S. must defend its neutrality • Stop impressment • British forts • Tecumseh • Desire for Canada and Florida • Called 2nd War of Independence John C. CalhounSouth Carolina Henry ClayKentucky
Tecumseh • Tecumseh (Shawnee warrior) & the Prophet (brother) formed union of tribes east of Mississippi to fight white intrusion • Supplied by the British • led Indian cultural renewal • 1809: General William H. Harrison appointed as governor of Indiana Territory by President Jefferson. • President Jefferson instructed Harrison to convince Tecumseh to stop attacking American settlements.
Tecumseh Tecumseh reflected bitterly on the white man’s treatment of his people. “We gave them forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game and in return what did they give our warriors and our women? Rum, trinkets (jewelry) and death”
Tecumseh vs Harrison T E C U M S E H VS H A R R I S O N “One of those uncommon geniuses who spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and overturn the established ordered of things. If it were not for the vicinity of the U.S., he would perhaps be the founder of an Empire that would rival in glory that of Mexico.” William Henry Harrison
madwar MR. MADISON'S WAR War of 1812 • PRINCIPLES WE FOUGHT • Defend our neutrality • Freedom of the seas • Defend our self interest • Madison brought the US into this war to defend the neutrality of the US. • Would this be a violation of President Washington’s policy of keeping the US out of war and neutral? President James Madison
“Mr. Madison’s War” • Why Britain, not France? • Impressment: destroying US economy • British forts • Arming of Indians (Tecumseh) • Desire for Canada • No respect from British • Was convinced by the War Hawks that this was a needed war.
“Mr. Madison’s War” • June, 1812: War Hawks engineer declaration of war with England. • Unfortunately, Congress was not aware that London repealed impressment policy 2 days prior to war • New England opposed to war but Southern/western states supported the war • US at war vs. most powerful nation, but US divided • Poorly equipped US army initiated military action in 1812 by launching a 3-part invasion of Canada • The British easily repulsed the Americans
Map war1812 WAR OF 1812 • US unprepared for war. • Failed invasion into Canada. • Blockade hurt US economy…
The Battle of Thames River, Oct. 5, 1813 • US military victory led by General William H. Harrison • Tecumseh was killed during this battle
Naval Battles • The Battle of Lake Erie was probably the most important naval battle of the war • After defeating the British, Captain Oliver Hazard Perry declared, “We have met the enemy and they are ours” • Thomas Macdonough defeated a British fleet on Lake Champlain which resulted in a British retreat • US Naval tradition develops during the War of 1812
highlights HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WAR OF 1812 Dolly Madison escaped from White House and took many pieces of art, furniture from the White House before the British destroyed it. Washington, D.C. burned by British, 25th of August 1814
highlights HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WAR OF 1812 U.S. Flag which flew over Fort McHenry to inspire Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. September 13th, 1814
New orleans BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS • 10,000 British troops reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and were threatening the Louisiana Purchase. • 4,500 U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson, the British were defeated on January 8, 1815, 2 weeks after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war.
New orleans BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS • Considered greatest U.S. victory to that time • Defeated British’s best without help from any country • Countries gained respect for the U.S. after this battle. • Kept Louisiana Purchase under the control of the U.S.
The Treaty of Ghent • War of 1812 is considered a “stalemate”…Dec. 1814 • Peace commissioners in Ghent devised the following terms of peace • A halt to the fighting • The return of all conquered territory to the prewar borders • Recognition of the prewar boundary between Canada and the United States • Treaty was ratified by the Senate
H A R T F O R D C O N V E N T I O N • Radical NE Federalists met to discuss their grievances & find solutions to their problems: • U.S. Govt. fighting an unnecessary war against the wrong enemy • Sought financial assistance from Washington since their trade was at a standstill because British had placed a blockade around the Atlantic coastline of US • New Englanders continued to trade with the British during the war • Talked of secession or a separate peace proposal with England
H A R T F O R D C O N V E N T I O N • Resolutions adopted by the convention resemble a modern day political platform: • Constitutional amendments lessening the powers of Congress • restoring Federalist influence by a minority veto • 2/3’s vote before an embargo, new western states could be admitted and war could be declared.
The War’s Legacy • U.S. gained the respect of other nations • U.S. came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British Empire • The Federalist party came to an end as a national force • Talk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the South • Gained our neutrality and became isolated from Europe
The War’s Legacy • Native Americans in the West were forced to surrender large areas of land and move west. • More U.S. factories were built • War heroes such as Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison would eventually become Presidents. • Growth of American nationalism • Enter a time period in our history called the “Era of Good Feelings”
OUTCOMES OF WAR OF 1812 The War of 1812 won new respect for America among many British. Michael Scott, a young lieutenant in the British navy wrote, “I don’t like Americans; I never did, and never shall like them…..I have no wish to eat with them, drink with them, deal with, or consort with them in any way; but let me tell the whole truth, nor fight with them, were it not for the laurels to be acquired, by overcoming an enemy so brave, determined and alert, and in every way so worthy on one’s steel, as they have always proved. Respect from the Europeans