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SCIENCE IN AN OPERATIONAL SETTING. Philippa Gander Sleep/Wake Research Centre, Massey University Jim Mangie Delta Air Lines. Outline. What to measure When to measure Interpreting the data Safety Performance Indicators Conclusions.

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science in an operational setting

SCIENCE IN AN OPERATIONAL SETTING

Philippa Gander

Sleep/Wake Research Centre, Massey University

Jim Mangie

Delta Air Lines

outline
Outline
  • What to measure
  • When to measure
  • Interpreting the data
    • Safety Performance Indicators
  • Conclusions
what to measure in frms operational data crew fatigue measures
What to Measure in FRMSoperational data / crew fatigue measures

Operators need to be able to:

  • Identify (monitor) level of fatigue hazard(s)
  • Assess fatigue-related safety risk
    • Probability/severity
    • ICAO tolerability matrix
  • Define and monitor fatigue safety performance indicators
  • Investigate role of fatigue in incidents/accidents
what to measure crew fatigue
What to Measure: Crew Fatigue

ICAO definition of fatigue:

A physiological state of reduced mental or physical performance capability resulting from sleep loss or extended wakefulness,circadian phase, or workload (mental and/or physical activity) that can impair a crew member’s alertness and ability to safely operate an aircraft or perform safety related duties.

  • Functional status (subjective ,objective)
  • Sleep history
  • Circadian phase
  • Workload
samn perelli fatigue ratings
Samn-Perelli Fatigue Ratings

1=fully alert, wide awake

2=very lively, responsive, but not at peak

3=OK, somewhat refreshed

4=a little tired, less than fresh

5=moderately tired, let down

6=extremely tired, difficult to concentrate

7=completely exhausted, unable to function effectively

karolinska sleepiness ratings
Karolinska Sleepiness Ratings

1= extremely alert

2=

3= alert

4=

5= neither sleepy nor alert

6=

7= sleepy, but no difficulty remaining awake

8=

9= extremely sleepy, fighting sleep

pvt performance reaction speed
PVT Performance (Reaction Speed)

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when to measure crew fatigue
When to Measure Crew Fatigue
  • Monitoring for FRM Processes
    • In response to a series of fatigue reports
      • to identify extent and severity of hazard
    • In response to an incident
    • SPIs to evaluate effectiveness of fatigue mitigations and controls
    • Validation of a new route
  • Monitoring for FRMS Assurance Processes
    • SPIs set in FRMS Policy objectives
    • SPIs for regulatory audit

Crew fatigue measures may not always be needed

safety performance indicators spis
Safety Performance Indicators(SPIs)

5 FRMS Components

3. Risk Management Processes

1. Policy

Fatigue Safety

Action Group

4.Safety Assurance Processes

SMS

5. Promotion Processes

2. Documentation

operational spis examples
Operational SPIs: Examples
  • Track data on number of :
    • exceedances of planned crew duty day (e.g. > 14 hrs)
    • flight duty periods ending > 30 mins later than scheduled
    • flight duty periods starting / ending within window of circadian low (WOCL)
    • reserve crew call-outs (on particular flights, at a particular crew base, etc)

Monitoring of FRM processes

Monitoring of FRMS safety assurance processes

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Challenge
    • Developing in-house expertise versus using consultants ($$)
  • Data sharing
    • Operators don’t have to reinvent the wheel
    • Rich data source for improving fatigue science
  • Needs
    • Paradigms for data sharing
    • Better indicators of fatigue-related performance impairment
    • Better fatigue measurement technologies
    • Better fatigue risk assessment (safety consequences of being fatigued in a given context)
    • Better fatigue risk controls and mitigations

Cooperation is the key

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Dr Jarnail Singh, Singapore CAA
  • Participants in B-777 study
  • Scientific Steering Committee, FAA 3-airline study
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