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Lab 5 –Blood , Lymphatics and the Immune Response. Gilbert Pitts, Ph.D., Joseph Schiller, Ph.D., James F. Thompson, Ph.D. Objectives. Examine: Lymph node slide Lymphatic vessels on charts and models Blood slides

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lab 5 blood lymphatics and the immune response

Lab 5 –Blood, Lymphatics and the Immune Response

Gilbert Pitts, Ph.D., Joseph Schiller, Ph.D., James F. Thompson, Ph.D.

objectives
Objectives
  • Examine:
    • Lymph node slide
    • Lymphatic vessels on charts and models
    • Blood slides
      • Differentiate red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
      • Perform 2 differential WBC counts
      • Identify leukemia
      • Identify sickle cell anemia
  • Understand blood typing (ABO and Rh systems)
  • Calculate and interpret hematocrit/packed cell volume
the lymphatic system
The Lymphatic System
  • Basic organization
    • Lymph fluid in lymph vessels
    • Lymphatic organs (red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils) with smaller collections of lymphatic tissue in other organs
  • Functions
    • Return interstitial fluid and proteins to the blood
    • Transport dietary fats to adipose tissue
    • Protect against cancer & infection
  • Lymph Flow from smallest to largest:
    • Capillaries  vessels  trunks  ducts
  • Lymph vessels anastomose and supply and drain lymph nodes along their course
lymph flow follows venous circulation
Lymph Flow Follows Venous Circulation
  • Right head, arm, and thorax drained by the right lymphatic duct into right subclavian vein
  • Left head, arm, thorax, most of the abdominal cavity and both legs drained by the thoracic duct into the left subclavian vein

R

L

the lymph node
The Lymph Node
  • Connective tissue capsule with trabeculaeextending from cortex to medulla
  • Stroma – the supportive connective tissue network of reticular fibers and fibroblasts

trabeculae

capsule

circulation in the lymph nodes
Circulation in the Lymph Nodes
  • Lymph enters via a number of afferent lymphatic vessels
  • It then enters a large subcapsular sinus and travels into a number of smaller sinuses
  • It meanders through these sinuses and exits the node at the hilus via efferent vessels
  • The node acts as a “settling tank,” because there are fewer efferent vessels, lymph stagnates somewhat in the node
    • This allows lymphocytes and macrophages time to carry out their protective functions

Only lymph nodes filter lymph!

Metastasis: cancer cells from a tumor break away and flow with the lymph until trapped in the lymph nodes

lymph node parenchyma
Lymph Node Parenchyma
  • Cortex - filled with lymphocytes and macrophages in follicles
    • Outer edge of follicle contains more T cells
    • Inner germinal center is the site of B-cell proliferation
  • Medulla - medullary cords of lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells (activated B cells)

Cortex

Medulla

the formed elements of the blood
The Formed Elements of the Blood:
  • Leukocytes = White Blood Cells
    • Granular leukocytes (granulocytes)
      • neutrophils
      • eosinophils
      • basophils
    • Agranular leukocytes (agranulocytes)
      • lymphocytes - T cells, B cells
      • monocytes  tissue macrophages
granular leukocytes

Eosinophil

2-4%

Neutrophil

60-70%

Basophil

0.5-1%

Granular Leukocytes
leukocyte life span and number
Leukocyte Life Span and Number
  • 5,000 - 10,000 WBC’s/mm3 blood
    • RBC/WBC ratio 700/1
  • Differential WBC count (a standard clinical lab report)
    • Neutrophils 60-70%
    • Lymphocytes 20-25%
    • Monocytes 3-8%
    • Eosinophils 2-4%
    • Basophils 0.5-1%
  • Abnormal proportions are correlated with different types of disease processes
differential wbc count

Eosinophil

2-4%

Lymphocyte

20-25%

Monocyte

3-8%

Neutrophil

60-70%

Basophil

0.5-1%

Differential WBC Count
leukocyte identification
Leukocyte Identification

Agranular

Granular

All have many large

granules in cytoplasm &

multilobed nuclei

Dark

Hidden nuc.

Small

Spherical nucleus

Basophil

Lymphocyte

Red gran.

Large

2+ lobes

Eosinophil

Faint gran.

Monocyte

no large

granules in

cytoplasm

Neutrophil

composition of blood
Composition of Blood
  • Blood sample separates into 2 parts
    • plasma - straw colored liquid on top
      • ~55% of the volume
    • formed elements
      • ~45% of the volume
        • red blood cells
        • buffy coat: white blood cells and platelets
hematocrit hct
Hematocrit (Hct)
  • Packed Cell Volume is the % of the blood which is RBC’s
    • Males: 40-54% (47%)
    • Females: 38-46% (42%)
  • Hct indicates the status of RBC production, the state of hydration, or various disease states
blood typing
Blood Typing
  • Antigen – any substance which provokes specific immune responses
  • Antigenic determinants
    • Antigen parts which trigger the specific immune response
    • An antigen may be an entire microbe or only small structures such as subregions of large molecules
    • RBC antigens (agglutinogens) are membrane glycoproteins

Most “antigens” are complex and express multiple types of antigenic determinants.

abo blood types
ABO Blood Types
  • 2 glycoprotein agglutinogens, A & B
  • One gene from each parent, A, B or O
  • 6 combinations - AA, AB, AO, BB, BO, OO (no agglutinogens)
abo blood types1
ABO Blood Types
  • Agglutinins
    • Naturally occurring antibodies produced in response to the agglutinogens not present in your blood
    • React in antigen-antibody response to blood not of your type
      • blood type AB = universal recipients
      • blood type O = universal donors
rh system
Rh System
  • Rh typing - Rhesus monkey
    • Those expressing Rh antigens are Rh+
    • Those without Rh agglutinogens are Rh-
      • Normally, blood does not contain Rh agglutinins
      • Immune system only makes agglutinins in response to specific exposure to Rh antigens
      • Rh sensitivity does not occur until second transfusion
      • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)
        • many “blue babies” prior to WWII
please clean up your work area
Please Clean Up Your Work Area
  • Place only lancet and capillary tubes in designated sharps containers
  • Place all other blood contaminated materials (gloves, alcohol wipes, paper towels, etc.) in the large red biohazard bucket at the front of the room
  • Place all other discards in regular trash receptacles
  • Disinfect your work area with the spray solution after you have concluded your blood work.
homework
Homework
  • Complete and turn in the questions on pages 5-13 to 5-15
  • Complete Assignment 5 on MasteringAandP.
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