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Pharmacy History 222 PHCL Muneera Alwhaibi Msc. Pharmacy history lab 1. Objectives: Brief overview of profession roots. Study history from its origin in ancient Babylonia through the middle of the twentieth century. Pharmacy events before the middle ages.

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Pharmacy history 222 phcl muneera alwhaibi msc

Pharmacy History222 PHCLMuneera Alwhaibi Msc


Pharmacy history lab 1
Pharmacy history lab 1

Objectives:

  • Brief overview of profession roots.

  • Study history from its origin in ancient Babylonia through the middle of the twentieth century.


Pharmacy events before the middle ages
Pharmacy events before the middle ages

For as long as the human species has encountered disease, injury, and illness, people have sought relief.

Empirically based trial and error.

Knowledge based facts , comprehension.


Pharmacy events before the middle ages1
Pharmacy events before the middle ages

  • Pharmacy in ancient times

    • It was practiced in prehistoric times as people used the water, plants and earth around them for soothing compresses on wounds and ailments.


Pharmacy events before the middle ages2
Pharmacy events before the middle ages

Babylon often called the cradle of civilization, provides the earliest known record of practice of the art of the apothecary.

Practitioners of healing of this era (about 2600 B.C.) were priest, pharmacist and physician.


Sumerian clay cuneiform tablets
Sumerian clay cuneiform tablets

  • Some oldest pharmacy records are found in Sumerian clay cuneiform tablets that date about 2000 B.C.

  • Medical texts on clay tablets record first the symptoms of illness, the prescription and directions for compounding.


Sumerian clay cuneiform tablets1
Sumerian clay cuneiform tablets

Symbols that appear in the 'world's oldest prescription'


Pharmacy events before the middle ages3
Pharmacy events before the middle ages

  • Pharmacy in ancient times

    • An ancient china (2000 B.C), emperor Shen Nung investigated the medical properties of hundreds of herbs.


Pharmacy events before the middle ages4
Pharmacy events before the middle ages

ShenNung Pen TsaoChing

  • Pharmacy in ancient China: The emperor Shen Nung:

    • He recorded and documented 365 native herbal in a book called Shen Nung Pen Ts'ao Ching .


Pharmacy events before the middle ages5
Pharmacy events before the middle ages

  • Pharmacy in ancient times

    • Egyptian priest, prepared medicines.

    • The Ebers papyrus, which dates from

      1900-1100 B.C, is the best known

      pharmaceutical record from ancient history.

    • It contains 800 prescriptions using 700 drugs.

    • Many modern dosage forms are referred to in the Ebers papyrus (gargles, snuffs, inhalations, suppositories…..)



Pharmacy events before the middle ages6
Pharmacy events before the middle ages

  • Pharmacy in ancient times

    • Ancient Greece lived the father of botany, Theophrastus (300 B.C)

      has observations about the medicinal qualities of herbs.


Pharmacy events before the middle ages7
Pharmacy events before the middle ages

  • Pharmacy in ancient times

    • Hippocrates formulated the theory of the four humors that parallel the four elements:

      • (air- blood, water- phlegm, earth-black bile, fire- yellow bile).

    • He surmised that disease was caused by an imbalance of these bad humors


Pharmacy differentiate during middle ages
Pharmacy differentiate during middle ages

  • Pharmaceutical knowledge- and the number

    of drugs available- grew considerably.

  • Thanks primarily to the Arab world.

  • Pharmacy as a separate activity began to develop and privately owned pharmacies were established in Islamic lands.

  • First known apothecary shop was opened in Baghdad in the 8th century, and the Muslims carried this concept into Europe during wars and other excursions into Africa, Spain, southern France.



Pharmacy events during middle ages
Pharmacy events during middle ages

  • Pharmacy differentiate during middle ages

    • Ibn Sina (circa 980-1037)- Avicenna- intellectual giant, he was a physician, poet, philosopher, diplomat, companion of Persian princes and rulers.

    • His Canon Medicine brought together the best knowledge of the Greeks and Arabs into a single medical text.