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Chapter 8: The Progressive Era. Chapter 8 The Progressive Era. Reform. “ ations ” Industrialization/urbanization/immigration Progressivism- Reform Movement Who? Members of all political parties, social classes, ethnic groups and religions

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chapter 8 the progressive era

Chapter 8: The Progressive Era

Chapter 8

The Progressive Era

  • “ations”
    • Industrialization/urbanization/immigration

Progressivism- Reform Movement

Who? Members of all political parties, social classes, ethnic groups and religions

Beliefs: Industrialization and Urbanization created social and political problems

Populism-Similar views on corruption

Populism-Led by workers and farmers

Progressivism- Led by middle and upper class

social problems
Social Problems
  • Political Corruption
    • City officials who built corrupt organizations (Political Machines)
    • Corrupt Government + Urban Growth=
      • Overcrowding
      • Unsafe Drinking Water
      • No/Poor Municipal Services
big business
Big Business
  • Trusts- Conglomerates…Many wanted Government to “Bust The Trusts”
  • Middle Class- Thought
  • there was no opportunity
  • for small business owners
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act of

1890- Wasn’t effective

enough to limit big business

  • Journalists Call for reform
    • Wrote Sensational stories
    • Muckrake is used for cleaning out horse stalls
    • Lincoln Steffens-Published The Shame of the CitiesAbout Philadelphia government overcharging utilities
    • Jacob Riis-Photographer for New York Sun, published How the Other Half Lives
    • Ida Tarbell-The History of Standard Oil

John Rockefeller’s Ruthless Methods

  • Upton Sinclair- Wrote The Jungle, a novel about poor immigrants working in Chicago Stockyards
  • Frances Ellen Watkins-African

American Journalist published Iola Leroy

  • Walter Rauschenbusch-Baptist Minister who wrote Christianity and the Social Crisis
  • Social Gospel- Charity and Justice
    • End Child Labor
    • Shorter Workweek
    • Limit power of Corporations and Trusts
  • Settlement House-Community Center that provided social services to Urban poor
    • Taught English to Immigrants
    • Child Care
    • Taught Kindergarten

JaneAddams-Worked at Settlement House in England, Opened Hull House in Chicago

By 1911…400+ Settlement Houses

  • Florence Kelley-Lawyer, helped Ban Child Labor in Illinois
  • 1902-National Child Labor Committee
    • 1909-Helped Create National Association For The Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
    • 1912-Lobbied Federal Government to create U.S. Children’s Bureau
    • 1916 Keating-Owens Act-Banned Child Labor
    • 1918-Ruled Unconstitutional by U.S. Supreme Court
  • Education-States passed laws forcing Children to Attend School Until A Certain Age
  • John Dewey-Wanted Schools to teach History and Geography, as well as Woodworking and Cooking
  • Industrial Accidents-USA is #1 in World during 1900’s
  • No Safety Laws, 30,000 Workers Die on the Job/500,000 Injured
  • March 1911-Triangle Shirtwaist Factory-New York City- Female Workers, Kills 146
    • Intensifies calls for reform
    • Causes New York to pass laws for workplace safety
government reform
Government Reform
  • 1900-Galveston, Texas-8,000 Die in massive Hurricane
  • Galveston, TX forms Commission Government
    • 5 Person Commission Replaces Mayor and Aldermen
    • Very Efficient-By 1918 Nearly 500 Cities Adopt Commission
    • Nearly Eliminates Corruption of Political Machines
political reform
Political Reform
  • Direct Primary- Robert M. La Follette Establishes an Election where citizens vote to select nominees for elections
  • By 1916, all but 4 states have Direct Primaries
  • Initiative-People have power to put new law on ballot by Petitions
  • Referendum-Allow Citizens to say “Yea or Nea”
  • Recall-Voters could remove officials from office before the end of their term
political reform1
Political Reform
  • Dynamic Progressive Governors
  • Robert La Folletteof Wisconsin
    • Elected 1900
    • Railroads Charge Lower Fees/Pay Higher Taxes
    • Improve Education

Hiram Johnson of Governor-Stopped Southern Pacific RailRoad Control of State Govt.

Theodore Roosevelt-New York Governor

Woodrow Wilson- New Jersey Governor

women s rights
Women’s Rights
  • Muller v. Oregon-1908
    • Supreme Court Agrees With Louis D. Brandeis, Women Should Only Work 10 Hours
    • Companies pay Women Less Than Men
    • Florence Kelley-National Consumers League
      • Labels Goods Produced Under Fair, Safe and Healthy Working Conditions
      • Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL)-Improve Conditions for Female Factory Workers (Minimum Wage)
women s rights1
Women’s Rights
  • WCTU-Temperance (No Drinking Alcohol)
  • Margaret Sanger-Nurse, Starts 1st Birth Control Clinic in USA
  • Ida B. Wells- National Association of Colored Women (NACW) 1896
  • Suffrage-Right to Vote
  • Carrie Chapman Catt- School Superintendent
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association-NAWSA-President in 1900
  • 2 Prong Attack-Lobby Congress, Make Referendum
  • Recruit Wealthy and Poor
  • “Suffragettes”
  • Alice Paul-Social Activist, Quaker, Ph.D
  • National Woman’s Party (NWP)-1917 Public Protest Marches-1st Group To March at White House

1917-NAWSA- Supports WWI

NWP-Opposes War

1919-19th Amendment-Right To Vote shall Not Be Denied or Abridged on Account of Sex