United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering EE Department Graduation Project Course ’’Solar Cell Tracking System with Data Aquasision ’’ Supervised By: Dr. Mohammed Abd-Hafiz ((Done By)) Imtinan Attili 200440618 Amira Ahmad 200337293 Asma Abu baker 200337814
Solar tracker: • Is a device onto which solar panels are fitted to track the motion of the sun across the sky. • Ensures that maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day. • Since solar powered equipment works best when pointed at the sun, a solar tracker can increase the effectiveness of such equipments.
The Purpose of this Project is to: • Design and built a Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System that will orient a solar panel toward the sun to maximize the solar efficacy. • Data acquisition with GUI will be developed to record data and measure the solar efficiency using different tracking techniques.
Basically the system consists of four circuits: System Design :-
(1)..Sensors Circuit • Components • Sensors • Resistors • Basic connection
Light Sensors Circuit ...(Eagle) Light Sensor
Sensors Design Every simple change of sun light will be sensed. High sensitivity for the sensors …….
(2)…H-Bridge Circuit • Components • TIP31 Transistors • Resistors • Servo Motor • Basic connection
(3)…Microcontroller Circuit • Components • Microcontroller • Resistors • Capacitors • Cristal • Basic connection
Microcontroller & H-Bridge Circit...(Eagle) Microcontroller H-Bridge (1) H-Bridge (2)
(4)…Data Acquisition • Components • Microcontroller • Max Circuit • Capacitors • Serial Port Connector • Basic connection PIC16F77
Microcontroller & MAX Circuit ...(Eagle) MAX Circuit
Connection The sensor at the north should be comared to the south, similarly to the west & east Sensor (N) – Sensor (S) Sensor (E) – Sensor (W)
Idle Case Idle Case occaurs when there is no difference in light intinsity between the four light sensors. In this case no need to keep powering the H-Bridge since we don’t need to move the motors . For this case a particular chip was used (relay ) Which basically works on cutting the power from the circuit in the Idle case.
Connection with the Relay H-Bridge Relay 5 volts Trigger 5 volts GND • Trigger should be more than 2.7 volts. • If it’s 2.7 volts the H-Bridge will be powered • If less no power will reach the H-Bridge.
Programming PC ’’LABX 1’’ Circuit Board Programmer • 1. PICBASIC PRO was used & program was transferred to the programmer. • 2. The PIC was placed on the programmer. • 3. The PIC is then placed on the circuit board and is ready to work and perform tasks.
One Part of the Program start1:low 3low 2 pot 7, 255, b0pot 6, 255, b1 if b0 = b1 then start2if b0 > b1 then greater1if b0 < b1 then lesser1greater1:d = b0 - b1if d > 10 then cw1goto start2lesser1:d = b1 - b0if d > 10 then ccw1goto start2 No voltage sent to the motors Sensors voltage saved . Voltage is compared cw1:high 3Low 2 High PortA.1 pause 100goto start2ccw1:low 3high 2 High PortA.1 pause 100goto start2 Movment should be CW Movment should be CCW
Motors Movement No Movement 0 0 CW Movement 0 1 CCW Movement 1 0
‘’One Problem’’ When connecting the entire system we noticed that the microcontroller burns after some time, the reason is due to the reverse current coming from the H-Bridges The solusion is to connect evey output from the microcontroller to an optocoupler which is a chip that isolates the microcontroller from the rest of the circuit...
‘’Connection of the Optocoupler’’ microcontroller Output 5 Volts Connection to the rest of the system
PCB Circuit • PCB = Printed Circuit Baord. • Our circuit was implimented on a PCB board, because: • Lighter can be placed on the solar panel • Reduces the wiring in the circuit • Circuit looks neater. • The soldaring process:
The Machine used to print the circuit This machine drilles halls where components are supposed to be place. Specefiies the connection paths between conected components.
The Printed Circuit.. Components are placed in the PCB through the holes showing above. Then they are fixed using soldaring.
5.5 cm 2.5 cm 9 cm 2 cm Motor (1)
This part will be placed inside th box and fixed to the two sides of the box.. And motor-2 will be fixed on it 3 cm 7 cm 15 cm
Base holding motor-2 7.5 cm
Panel 5 cm 5 cm The Two shafts of the first motor will be placed inside the two holes showing in the design 8.5 cm 68 cm 8.5 cm 3.5 cm 25.5 cm
Why Data Acquisition • Display the current and the voltage produced by the solar panel on a PC or laptop V & I Solar Panel
Communication System Solar Panel
Serial Communication • Serial communication is the simplest way to communicate between two devices • Information is sent in a serial fashion, one bit at a time • Provides slow rates compared to the parallel port • Easy to use and have low cost • Popular for applications where the data transfer rate is not critical
Serial Communication Solar Panel MC & MAX circuits
Serial Data Format Error checking Data about to be transmitted Data transmission is complete