Environmental Science. What is Environmental Science?. Relationships between people and the natural environment. Interdisciplinary Broad field Ecology is a basic tool Goals Establish general principles about how the natural world functions Identifying, understanding, and solving problems.
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What is Environmental Science? • Relationships between people and the natural environment. • Interdisciplinary • Broad field • Ecology is a basic tool • Goals • Establish general principles about how the natural world functions • Identifying, understanding, andsolving problems
What is Earth Science? • All the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth and its neighbors in space. • Four Sciences: • Geology • Oceanography • Meteorology • Astronomy
How are earth science, environmental science and people connected? People Earth Science Resources: -Renewable -Non-renewable Environment: -Biological -Physical Population growth Environmental problems Environmental science
How do Earth scientists know all this stuff? • Observation • Experimentation • Understanding other sciences • Biology • Physics • Chemistry
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry The Scientific Method • Collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement • Hypothesis: tentative explanations to observations • Extensive testing and analysis • Acceptance, modification or rejection • Models • Useful when dealing with natural processes that occur over very long periods of time (scales of time) or in inaccessible locations.
The nature of Scientific Inquiry Theory Paradigms Theories that are extensively documented and explain a large number of interrelated aspects of the natural world. • A well tested and widely accepted view that the scientific community agrees best explains certain observable facts Scientific laws • A basic principle that describes a particular behavior of nature that is generally narrow in scope and can be sated briefly
STUDYING EARTH FROM SPACE… pg 8. How can satellite images be used to study Earth from space? • Know the composition of Earth’s surface • Precipitation data • Understanding global climate change
The Nebular Hypothesis and Origins of Earth and the Solar System A. solar nebula B. contraction into rotating disk C. Cooling causing condensing into tiny (dust sized) solid particles D. Collisions between these form larger bodies E. These accrete to form planets Oceanography 100 Animations
HYDROSPHERE • Oceans 97% • Freshwater • Streams • Lakes • Glaciers • Underground
Atmosphere • Life-giving gaseous envelope • ½ lies below an altitude of 5.6 km • 90 % occurs within just 16 km • Protects from the dangerous radiation emitted by the Sun. • Site of weather and climate
Biosphere • All life on Earth • Depend and respond to their physical environment • Have an effect on their physical environment
Geosphere Layers defined by composition: • Crust • Oceanic, 40 km, d= 3g/cm3 • Continental, 70 km, d = 2,7 g/cm3 • Mantle, 2900 km, d=3,4 g/cm3 • Core, d= 13 g/cm3
Geosphere Layers defined by physical properties: • Lithosphere • Asthenosphere • Lower mantle • Outer core • Inner core
CONTINENTS Mountain belts OCEAN BASIN
Earth as a System What is a SYSTEM? • Group of interacting parts that form a complex whole. • Two types: • Closed system: energy moves freely in and out, but matter does not enter or leave the system. • Open system: both matter and energy flow into and out of the system.
Earth as a System • Within the Earth system, the spheres are interconnected.
Earth as a System • Energy for the Earth system is powered by two sources: • Sun: drives external processes that occur in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and at Earth’s surface. • 2) Heat from Earth’s interior: powers internal processes that produce volcanoes, earthquakes and mountains.
Sources • http://www.enov.co.uk/pages/Environment.html • http://www.myrrh-art.com/Levels_in%20Matter_T.html • http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/volcanoes-national-parks • http://www.northeducation.ac.th/elearning/ed_sc30/chap07/sc7112_1.html • http://animals.howstuffworks.com/marine-life/coral-reef.htm • http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0040-introduction-to-our-atmosphere.php • http://sciencerevolution.net/dict_m.html • http://www.crystalinks.com/platetectonics.html • http://bumileluhur.blogspot.com/2011/01/seafloor-features.html • http://www.eoearth.org/article/Physiography_of_the_Earth's_terrestrial_surface