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The Immune System Concept 43.1- In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on shared traits of pathogens. Dion Kevin Luke Leary Rachael- catherine hartnett. Introductory Video. Overview.

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The Immune SystemConcept 43.1- In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on shared traits of pathogens

Dion Kevin

Luke Leary


introductory video
Introductory Video

  • Pathogens- infectious agents that cause disease
    • Ex: viruses, bacteria, protists, and fungi
  • Immune system- the defenses which enable an animal to avoid or limit many infections
  • Innate immunity- the immediate and undifferentiated immune response in animals
  • Acquired immunity- immune responses which are specific to pathogens which have already been introduced
innate immunity of invertebrates
Innate immunity of Invertebrates

Insects rely on the chitin in their exoskeletons as well as in their intestines for the first line of defense

Lysozyme, an enzyme that digests microbial cell walls, as well as low pH in digestive system aid in the first line of defense

Hemocytes, immune cells in insect blood (hemolymph), carry out phagocytosis

Other hemocytes stimulate chemical production and antimicrobrial peptide production

innate immunity of invertebrates cont
Innate Immunity of Invertebrates cont.

Antimicrobial peptides circulate and disrupt the membranes of fungi and bacteria

Immune response cells rely on identification of unique molecules on invader surface layers

Ex: pg 932

innate immunity of vertebrates
Innate Immunity of Vertebrates

Barrier defenses-Barrier defenses are the typical front line against pathogens.

Skin, Mucous membranes, tears, etc.

Beyond the role of blocking pathogens from the body many create a pathogen killing environment for toxins.

innate immunity cont
Innate Immunity Cont.

Cellular Innate defenses

Toll-like receptors-recognizes molecule fragments of pathogens

Neutrophils- phagocytic cells which engulf pathogens

Macrophages- Large phagocytic cells which engulf pathogens efficiently. Most common in lymphatic organs

Eosinophils-fight multiple cell invaders such as parasites. Release enzymes to kill invaders

Dendritic Cells-stimulate tissues to develop an acquired immunity

innate immunity cont1
Innate immunity cont.

Peptides and proteins work to fight and destroy pathogens.

The body fights pathogens in many other ways such as through inflammation Natural Killer cells.

innate immune system evasion by pathogens
Innate Immune System Evasion by Pathogens

Several pathogens have developed certain mechanisms that allow them to avoid destruction by pathogenic cells.

In order to do this, for example, the outer capsule that surrounds the bacteria hides the polysaccharides of their cell walls, which prevents recognition.

However, for bacteria that are unable to avoid recognition, some develop resistanceto breakdown by lysosomes. An example of this is Tuberculosis(TB). Instead of being destroyed, microbes grow and reproduce, hidden from immune defenses of the body.