integrated smart nanosensors for space biotechnology applications
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications. Toshikazu Nishida Mark E. Law University of Florida NASA Research Briefing September 25, 2002. Introduction. Overview of the Program Test Bed Development Miniaturization of Macro Sensors Nanosensor Development Equipment

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications' - alexa-ratliff

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
integrated smart nanosensors for space biotechnology applications

Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications

Toshikazu Nishida

Mark E. Law

University of Florida

NASA Research Briefing

September 25, 2002

  • Overview of the Program
  • Test Bed Development
  • Miniaturization of Macro Sensors
  • Nanosensor Development
  • Equipment
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Goal: Develop Low Mass, Low Power Sensors
  • Interdisciplinary Work
    • ECE, MSE, Aerospace, Chemical, Civil, Environmental Involved
    • Miniaturize Macroscopic Sensors
    • New Applications for NEM’s Devices
technical outline
Technical Outline
  • Test Bed Development
    • Water Purification Mazyck(Environmental)
  • Miniaturization of Macro Sensors
    • Cumulative Flow Hatfield(Civil), Annable(Environmental)
    • Gas Sensor Wachsmann (MSE)
  • Nanosensor Development
    • Flow Sensor Sheplak(Aero) and Nishida (ECE)
    • Wide Band gap Sensors Ren (Chem), Chauhan(Chem), Pearton(MSE)
    • Membrane Development Jones(MSE), Law(ECE)
    • Self-Powered Sensors Nishida(ECE), Sheplak(Aero)
integration of intelligent sensors for water recovery
Integration of Intelligent Sensors for Water Recovery
  • David W. Mazyck, Environmental Engineering Sciences
    • Technical Leader for Water Recovery
  • Objective has been to design a micro-gravity compatible reactor that removes or destroys organics from recycled water
  • Two systems currently under development
    • Magnetically Agitated Photocatalytic Reactor
      • MAPR sponsored by the ES CSTC
    • In-situ Regenerated Activated Carbon
      • IRAC to be presented at 2002 ICES
project description
Project Description
  • MAPR
    • Magnetic particles are coated with silica and TiO2 to photocatalytically degrade organics
    • Magnetic field fluidizes particles to enhance mixing and destruction rates
  • IRAC
    • Capture organics through traditional adsorption with TiO2 coated activated carbon
    • In-situ regenerate carbon once exhausted with UV light
research description
Research Description
  • Optimize MAPR for the destruction of target organics
  • Improve IRAC regeneration efficiency
  • Integrate sensors to monitor or control flow, temperature, and specific organics
  • Coupled to Fluidic Sensing, Flow Sensors, Cumulative Flow Sensor, Membrane Development
system schematic
Time-Controlled Sensor Particle Retrieval

Power Control through Sensor



Raman Analyzer


Water In

UV Lamp


Smart Photocatalytic Magnetic Particle

UV Regenerator

Chemical/Biological pollutant

Smart Regenerative Sensing System

Smart Sensor particle

System Schematic

NEMs Flow Sensor

Integrated Treatment and Sensing System for Water Purification in Space (MAPR and IRAC interchangeable).

cumulative flux sensor
Cumulative Flux Sensor
  • Kirk Hatfield, Civil Engineering
  • Mike Annable, Environmental Engineering Sciences
  • Objective is to miniaturize working system for pollutants
cumulative contaminant flux

Cumulative Contaminant Flux

  • Contaminants in the flow, q are intercepted and retained on the sensor.
  • The mass of contaminant retained, Mc is used to quantify cumulative contaminant mass flux, Jc

Porous Flux meter

Dye intercepted in a flux meter

Contaminant Intercepted

cumulative water flux

Cumulative Water Flux

  • The flow field leaches a resident tracer from the sensor
  • The mass of tracer remaining, Mr is used to calculate cumulative water flux, q over exposure period, t


Porous Flux meter

gas sensor
Gas Sensor
  • Eric Wachsmann, Materials Science
  • Objective to develop a Miniature Low-Power Integrated CO/CO2/H2/H2O/O2 Sensor for Space Biotechnology Applications
gas sensor1
Gas Sensor
  • Simple potentiometric sensor is not limited to a specific size and does not require separate reference atmosphere
  • We have already demonstrated approach provides ppm sensitivity for CO and NO and selectivity for NO
  • We will determine selectivity for CO
  • We will determine scalability toward nano-dimensions
  • In future phase we will produce miniature CO/CO2/O2/H2/H2O sensor
mems sensors for environmental systems
MEMS Sensors for Environmental Systems
  • Dr. Mark Sheplak (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)
  • Dr. Toshi Nishida (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
  • Objective
    • Instrumentation-grade MEMS sensors for environmental systems
      • Specifically, MEMS flow sensors for water recovery reactors

in collaboration with David Mazyk in Environmental Engineering

  • Current Technology
    • Macroscopic liquid flow sensors
      • Turbine
      • Vane
      • Piston
  • Why MEMS Flow Sensor?
    • Smaller weight, size, power
    • Reduced pressure drop
mems sensors for environmental systems1
MEMS Sensors for Environmental Systems


  • Floating Element Flow Sensor
    • Direct detection of flow from imparted shear force on floating element
    • Flush mounted in fluidic channel wall for minimal pressure drop
    • Designable for low or high flow rate by adjusting spring force (tethers)
  • Detection Method for Displacement of Floating Element
    • Optical Moirè fringe detected via CCD

Figure 1 - Floating Element Principle




Moirè fringe

Figure 2 - Physical Structure

wide band gap semiconductor based sensors
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Based Sensors

Fan Ren, Chemical Engineering

Anuj Chauhan, Chemical Engineering

Steve Pearton, Materials Science and Engineering


Fabricate different semiconductor SiC and GaN based electronic devices to investigate the detection limit

Lateral electric fields can be used to separate charged molecules as they flow through a micro/nano fluidic channel.

SiC and GaN based materials are chemically and thermally stable and suitable for high temperature and harsh environment applications

Electronic devices from SiC and GaN are highly sensitive to several gases including hydrogen, carbon mono-oxide and hydrocarbons

schematic of microfluidic device
Schematic of Microfluidic Device

Fluid inlet


2 mm

Fluid outlet

2 mm

2 cm


The electric field concentrates the charged molecules near the wall, where they slow down due to the smaller velocities near the wall. The molecules with smaller diffusion coefficient, i.e., the larger molecules concentrate more near the walls, and thus slow down more. This leads to separation of molecules of different sizes.

Pulse introduced at time=0


Pulses at different time








Axial Position

membrane sensor development
Membrane Sensor Development
  • Kevin S. Jones, Materials Science Engineering
  • Mark E. Law, Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • Objective is to develop a single crystal silicon membrane for use in pressure and mass sensors - offer greater reliability and lower noise
membrane sensor development1
Membrane Sensor Development

Single Crystal Membrane Development

  • Operational Capability:
  • Single Crystal silicon membranes for use as both
    • Integrated Pressure Sensors and
    • Integrated Mechanical Resonators
  • Improved piezo-transducer formation through the use of Ultra-low Energy Ion Implantation and Laser Thermal Processing
  • Estimated Improvement in Dynamic range of 32 to 160 dB
  • Estimate a 10X reduction in the noise floor over bonded and etched back MEMS acoustic sensors
  • Significant long term resonator stability improvement because of the lack of grain creep

Silicon etching

and anneal

can lead to


Single Crystal membrane

0.75 µm thick


0.27mm2 in area

Proposed Technical Approach:

Develop the “Empty Space in Silicon” (ESS) process utilizing focused ion beam etching and reactive ion etching to produce etched holes in single crystal Si

Utilize high temperature annealing in a reducing ambient to flow the silicon over the etched features creating single crystal membranes

Develop ultra shallow junction formation methods using plasma assisted doping on ESS materials for piezoresistive transducers formation

self powered monitoring of life support systems
Self-Powered Monitoring of Life Support Systems
  • Principal Investigators
    • Dr. Toshi Nishida (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
    • Dr. Khai Ngo (Electrical and Computer Engineering)
    • Dr. Mark Sheplak (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)
    • Dr. Lou Cattafesta (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)
    • Dr. Jean Andino (Environmental Engineering Sciences)
  • Motivation
    • Flexible deployment of sensors to monitor health of life support systems requires self-powered wireless sensors
  • Target
    • To design a MEMS vibrational energy harvesting device that enables a self-powered sensor and wireless transmitter for ambient air monitoring and revitalization
self powered monitoring of life support systems1
Self-Powered Monitoring of Life Support Systems
  • Approach
    • Cantilever structure with a compliant structural silicon/piezoelectric composite beam and an inertial mass at the tip
  • Design
    • Scaling analysis of output power with geometry, force, and material properties
    • Adaptive power circuitry to maximize power flow
  • Tasks
    • Detailed design of the MEMS vibrational micro-generator (Nishida, Cattafesta, Sheplak)
    • Power scaling for integration with electronics (Ngo, Nishida)
    • Design for insertion into existing ambient air monitoring and revitalization technologies (Andino)
aligned wafer bonding system
Aligned Wafer-Bonding System
  • EVG 620 Double-Sided Lithography System:
    • +/- 0.5 mm front-to-backside wafer alignment and lithography for fabrication of nano- and micro-systems.
    • printing modes: such as soft, hard, vacuum contact and proximity are possible.
    • aligned wafer bond capabilities used for the fabrication of stacked layers in nano- and micro-systems.
  • EVG 501 Aligner Capabilities:
    • precision wafer to wafer alignment processes for silicon-direct, anodic, thermo-compression and pressure bonding.

Precision aligned wafer bonder (EVG 620 / EVG 501)

  • Flow Sensor - Water Purification
  • Cumulative Sensors with Membrane MEM’s and Water Purification
  • Potentiometric sensing with wideband gap materials
  • Self-Power Sensor with Membrane Development
  • Self-Power with all sensor technologies
major 18 month objectives
Major 18 month Objectives
  • Optimize Water Purification System with Integrated Sensors
  • Miniaturize Cumulative Flow and Contaminant Sensor
  • Miniature Low-Power Integrated CO/CO2/H2/H2O/O2 Sensor
  • Demonstrate MEM’s flow sensor in Water Purification Systems
  • Develop Wideband gap materials for sensing applications
  • Develop Novel Single Crystal Membrane Technology for MEM’s
  • Demonstrate Self-Powered Sensor
  • Leveraged work offers more immediate payback
  • Seed grants are looking are possible “revolutionary” technologies - long term payoff
  • Good cross linking between tasks - we aim for a real coordinated activity