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Chapter 8: Nutrition. Basic Terms. 46. NUTRITION. Study of food and the way the body uses it to produce energy and build/repair body tissue. 47. Kilocalorie. Unit of fuel potential in food. aka kcal or calorie Average adult requires around 2000 calories per day

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nutrition
46NUTRITION

Study of food and the way the body uses it to produce energy and build/repair body tissue.

kilocalorie
47Kilocalorie
  • Unit of fuel potential in food.
  • aka kcal or calorie
  • Average adult requires around 2000 calories per day
  • Excess calories stored by the body as fat
essential nutrients
46Essential Nutrients
  • Nutrients the body cannot produce in sufficient quantity for its needs
slide6
proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • fats

Macronutrients

  • vitamins
  • minerals
  • water

Micronutrients

protein
48Protein
  • Important component of muscle, bone, blood, enzymes, cell membranes, hormones
  • requirement depends on growth, illness, diet
protein9
48Protein
  • 10-15% of total calories should come from protein
  • Has 4 calories per gram
slide11
49Fats
  • Most concentrated source of energy
    • has 9 calories per gram
  • Help absorb fat-soluble vitamins
slide12
gives food taste
  • satisfies hunger
  • US diet needs to drop to 30% total fat
  • hidden in many processed foods
slide13
3 main types of fats from foods
    • saturated
    • monounsaturated
    • polyunsaturated

No more than 10% of diet should be saturated fat (solid at room temp).

fat fact
50Fat Fact

Fats make up 34% of average American diet

(5 tablespoons per day)

carbohydrates
CARBOHYDRATES
  • carbon, hydrogen & oxygen compound
  • primary fuel source
carbohydrates16
CARBOHYDRATES
  • provide 4 calories per gram
  • Supply energy to cells, especially during high-intensity exercise
slide17
51
  • Simple carbohydrates provide sweetness
  • Complex carbohydrates provide starch and most dietary fiber
slide18
51
  • 55% of total calories should come from carbohydrates
  • Americans need to consume more unrefined complex carbohydrates
minerals
53Minerals
  • Minerals - inorganic compounds
    • help regulate body functions
    • 17 essential minerals
slide21
macro (major) minerals--100 mg--calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium...
  • micro (trace) minerals--iron, copper, zinc, selenium, manganese...
slide22
Vitamins - organic substances
  • required in very small amounts to help chemical reactions
  • absorbed into bloodstream (better from natural sources)
  • antioxidants help preserve body’s healthy cells
slide23
Water soluble (B, C, folic acid)
  • Fat soluble (A, D, E, K)
  • toxicity reported with mega doses
water
WATER
  • regulates body temperature, contributes to cell processes and structure of the body
  • Need 1 quart for each 1000 calories.
water25
WATER
  • Comes from food, beverages and oxidation
  • Pure form is best!
fiber
FIBER
  • indigestible part of plants--soluble and insoluble
  • current American diet needs to double intake of fiber to 23-35 gm
slide27
DISEASE PREVENTION
  • manage diabetes and high blood cholesterol
  • helps in weight control
  • low in calories, take longer to chew
  • prevent conditions arising in the intestinal tract
slide28
HIGH FIBER FOODS
  • Fruits
  • legumes
  • oats
  • cereals
  • grains
  • vegetables
food guide pyramid
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID
  • sparingly: fats and oils
  • 2-3 of milk yogurt cheese
  • 2-3 of meat, poultry, beans. eggs
  • 2-3 of fruits
  • 3-5 of vegetables
  • 6-11 servings bread, cereal pasta, rice
dietary guidelines
54Dietary Guidelines
  • Eat a variety of foods
  • Balance foods you eat with physical activity
dietary guidelines31
54Dietary Guidelines
  • Choose plenty of grain products, vegetables, and fruits
  • Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
dietary guidelines32
54Dietary Guidelines
  • Be moderate in consumption of sugars
  • Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium
  • Drink alcohol moderately, if at all
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