Understanding And Conducting Security Assessments 2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 500 Arlington, VA 22202 (202) 261-4153 firstname.lastname@example.org www.ncpc.org/ncpa
Attackers - Defenders • How would you plan and execute an attack on a high risk facility? • How would you plan to defend a high risk facility against an attack?
Attackers • Usually spend time in the area they plan to attack. • Need logistical support. • Need to gather information to define their target. • Their final preparations place them in a high risk position.
Surveillance Location The surveillance location is critical to the attacker. It must provide: • Control • Cover and Concealment • Escape after the attack
Surveillance Detection A process to determine if • there is surveillance at a particular location, • by a particular individual, • for a criminal purpose or act of terror.
Surveillance Detection Our Task Locate and monitor the predictable locations where the attacker will need to be to conduct the surveillance of the targeted site.
Surveillance Detection • The attacker doesn't mind being seen – they just don’t want to be remembered.
Security Assessment Process A crucial step in the assessment process is to examine a site to determine the extent to which the application of physical and environmental security influences crime.Depending on the space, its function, location and other factors, the design and management of a site or facility can either reduce or increase the opportunity for crime.
An Assessment Report Is - • Researched (the assessment) • Organized (your notes / ideas) • Written (the text - words you write) • Prepared (proof read, formatted, printed) • Submitted (turned in / presented to customer)
Develop A Plan for the Assessment • Meet your client • Determine what is to be assessed • Have a thorough understanding of the site and its operations. • Obtain crime statistics • Obtain maps site plans and aerial photos
Develop A Plan for the Assessment • What format or process will you use to conduct the assessment? • SARA Model • Zone Approach • Checklist • Other ? • Just do it
Useful Equipment • Tape measure/wheel • Flashlight • Camera or Video Recorder • Light meter • Compass or GPS
Information Collection & Analysis • Crime Reports • Arrest Reports • Police Service Calls • Demographic • Land Use and Master Plans • Transportation, School & Park Plans • Code Violations • Interviews & Victimization Surveys • Focus Groups • Others
Maps - Drawings - Blueprints Sheets included in a set of blueprints 1. Title Sheet 7. Sections 2. Site Plan 8. Detail Drawings 3. Grading/Drainage 9. Doors & Windows 4. Utilities 10. Electrical Plan 5. Floor Plan 11. Landscape Plan 6. Elevations/Architectural 12. Lighting Plan
Construction Documents - Florida 1013.13 Coordination of school safety information; construction design documents. (1) Each district school superintendent must provide the law enforcement agency and fire department a copy of the floor plans and other relevant documents for each educational facility in the district. (2) Each community college president must provide the law enforcement agency and fire department a copy of the floor plans and other relevant documents for each educational facility.
Perception of the Site • Perception of Safety of the site, area and of the community; by the owner; employees, customers, visitors, etc • How is the site perceived? • Why do people have these perceptions? • Are they valid? • Is the “safe or unsafe” perception impacting the area, home/business, street, neighborhood or community in a negative or positive way?
Site Assessment - CPTED Issues • General impression of the site. • What makes you feel safe or unsafe? • Features that support or lessen territoriality. • Features that enhance or lessen surveillance. • Features that support or lessen access control. • Activity support. • Crime generators. • Design conflicts. • Other observations.
Site Assessment Zone 1: Immediate Neighborhood Zone 2: Property Boundaries Zone 3: Yards and Open Space Zone 4: Exteriors Zone 5: Interiors
Zone 1: Immediate Neighborhood • Is the neighborhood compatible with surrounding areas? • Where are the crime and disorder generators? • What is the level of crime and disorder in the immediate neighborhood?
Aerial Site Photo - Neighbors 1 Legend: Krispy Kreme 1 car repair 2 gas / convenience 3 retail shop 4 restaurant 4 3 3 2
Zone 2: Property Boundaries • Separate the site from adjacent property. • Enhance occupants sense of ownership. • Limit access onto the property. • Entrances observed and protected. • No Trespassing & other signs visible & adequate. • Property identified with distinctive signs & landscaping.
Zone 3: Yards and Open Space • Lighting • Opportunities for surveillance • Support activities (benches & play areas) • Location of playgrounds • Unprotected or unassigned space • Trees, shrubs and underbrush • Maintenance, litter and graffiti • Location of pay phones • Traffic and other signs • Bus stops and shelters • Gathering places (teenagers and young adults)
Zone 4: Exteriors • Access control into buildings • Doors and windows • Peep holes • Locking devises • Alarms • Building and apartment numbers • Exterior lighting • Trees and shrubs adjacent to buildings • Privacy - identification of front & back porches & yards.
Zone 5: Interiors • Interior doors, windows & vision panels • Locks on doors & storage areas • Alarm systems & closed circuit television • Interior lighting • Movement control • Space utilization • High risk and secure areas • Computer security • Security staffing • Staff & visitor identification procedures • Operating hours
Writing the Assessment Report At this point, there should be a clear understanding of what the problems are, what is being done about them and what needs to be done to remove or reduce them. Collectively, the strategies, or recommendations, that are developed become a security plan for the targeted site.
Report Writing Guidelines • Based on professional experience / training. • Decide on your writing style - bullet points; • paragraph - decide and stick with the style. • Say it clearly and concisely. • Write for your audience. • Avoid police jargon - If used, define it .i.e. CCTV • vs. Video Monitoring, IESNA, larceny, others? • Remember city/county/town/state codes.
Good Recommendations? • The biggest thing you need to worry about are your outside lights. You should make it brighter so no one can sneak around out there. • There is no back-up for your burglar alarm. • My thinking is that you should clear out the front yard so that the house isn’t hidden. • Putting up a small fence or some signs may send the message that people shouldn’t cut through your backyard.
Making Recommendations • Cost Effective • Reasonable • Attainable • Responsive to Problems • Confidential
Organizing the Report • Report Components • Introduction • Site Overview • Findings & Recommendations • Disclaimer
Organizing the Report • Writing Guidelines • Be Brief • Avoid writing in the first person - avoid using “I”, “me”, “we”, “us”, etc. - unless absolutely necessary. • Use a cover page to answer some of your questions • Acknowledge information sources / other agencies
Organizing the Report • Introduction - Elements • Who are you? • Employer • Credentials • What are you doing? • Assessment specifics (residential / business?) • Authorization (why are you doing this?) • What do you hope to accomplish? • Goals • DISCLAIMER INTRODUCED HERE
Organizing the Report • Site Survey - Elements • General Information • Locality information - surrounding area • Neighborhood crime stats • Description of locations - street, other neighbors, etc. • Property Description • General information • Exterior • Interior • Summary of Findings • Introduce some concerns • DO NOT INCLUDE RECOMMENDATIONS
Organizing the Report • Findings & Recommendations - Elements • Specific Findings • Describe problem / concern • Describe potential threats / safety issues • Recommendation(s) • Describe what you (as a professional) believe is a technical remedy • Include reasonable options
Organizing the Report • Findings & Recommendations • Writing Guidelines • Each Finding / Recommendation is numbered • State the issue / concern or problem. • Explain why it is a issue / concern / problem • Give your recommendation • Predict what implementation of the recommendation may do / Give 2nd recommendation
Organizing the Report • Findings & Recommendations • Writing Guidelines Example • 1. East Window • The view from east window of first floor family room is obstructed by a large evergreen bush. The density of the bush prevents natural surveillance of the window and may conceal malicious subject or a potential intruder. • Recommendation • It is recommended that the bush be trimmed down to a height of 3 feet or completely removed and replaced with short thorny plantings of 3 feet or less. This will improve the natural surveillance, while the thorny quality of the plantings may discourage anyone from approaching the outside of the window.
Organizing the Report • Disclaimer - What is it? • An acknowledgement that: • The Findings / Recommendations are based on recognized Crime Prevention principles • There are no guarantees that the recommendations will prevent crime and or ensure the safety of the users. • That the findings and recommendations are subjective. • There are other alternatives to the recommendations. • Why do I need it? • Professional responsibility - builds credibility • Legal protection
Organizing the Report Sample Disclaimer The recommendations contained in this report are intended to reduce the opportunity for crime and related problems. There is no guarantee that the implementation of some or all of these strategies will eliminate future crime.
Writing the Report Recap • 1) Gather information about the site and area. • 2) Decide on a writing format & stick to it. • 3) Write the report with the audience and cost factors • in mind. • 4) Don’t make recommendations that go against the • building/fire codes or local ordinances. • Include a disclaimer - in cover letter and in body of • the report.
Always Remember People do what you … INSPECT not EXPECT