Download
der fall der mauer n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Der Fall Der Mauer PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Der Fall Der Mauer

Der Fall Der Mauer

177 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Der Fall Der Mauer

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Der Fall Der Mauer Jubiläum: 20 Jahre

  2. Objectives(twolessons): • To understandthemainreasonswhy Berlin and Germany weresplitintotwofor 28 years. • To understandhowthishappened. • To understandwhatit was like to live on bothsides of the wall. • To understandthemainreasonsbehindthedecision to knockthe wall down.

  3. Starter

  4. Canyouputtheseeventsintothecorrect order chronologically: • German isreunified. • American President Ronald Reagan visits Berlin and tries to persuadetheRussianleader to tear down the Berlin Wall. • WW2 isover– Berlin isdividedinto 4 sectors (American, British, French and Russian). • East and West German bordersareclosed. • Hungaryopens ist border so that East German refugeescanescape.  • Russianmilitarymake a clearboundarybetween East (Russiancontrolled) and Western (American, British and French controlled) sectors of Berlin.  • Leaving East Germany becomes a crime and three years in prison is the punishment.   • Becausetoomanypeoplehadescaped East to the West (over 2.5 millionsincethe end of thethe war), a barrier was builtbetween East and West Berlin and between East and West Germany.  • Berlin Wall isopened.

  5. Wereyouright?

  6. 3 8th May 1945: WW2 isover – Berlin isdividedinto 4 sectors (American, British, French and Russian). 626th May 1946: Russian military make a clear boundary between East (Russian controlled) and Western (American, British and French controlled) sectors of Berlin. 439th June 1946: East and West German borders are closed. 7 11thDecember 1957: Leaving East Germany becomes a crime and threeyears in prisonisthepunishment.   8 13th August 1961: Becausetoomanypeoplehadescaped East to the West (over 2.5 millionsincethe end of thethe war), a barrier was builtbetween East and West Berlin and between East and West Germany.  2 12thJune 1987: American President Ronald Reagan visits Berlin and tries to persuadetheRussianleader to tear down the Berlin Wall. 5 10th September 1989: Hungaryopens ist border so that East German refugeescanescape.  9 9/10th November 1989: Berlin Wall isopened. 1 3rdOctober 1990: German isreunified.

  7. Whysplitup in thefirstplace?

  8. Whysplit up in thefirstplace? Western Allies’ way of government: Russian way of government: • Free electionswithmorethanone party to choosefrom • Industry and businessesownedbyindividualpeople • Government intefereslittlewithpeople’slives • Freedom of speech and movement • Onlyone party in thegovernment to choosefrom • All industry and businessesareownedbythestate • Individualsaren’tallowed to make lots of profits and money • Government controllesmostaspects of people’slives • Television, radio and newspapersare all controlledbythegovernment • No freedom of speech of movement (travelling)

  9. 8th May 1945: WW2 isover – Berlin isdividedinto 4 sectors (American, British, French and Russian). 26th May 1946: Russian military make a clear boundary between East (Russian controlled) and Western (American, British and French controlled) sectors of Berlin. 30th June 1946: East and West German borders are closed. 11thDecember 1957: Leaving East Germany becomes a crime and threeyears in prisonisthepunishment. 13th August 1961: Becausetoomanypeoplehadescaped East to the West (over 2.5 millionsincethe end of thethe war), a barrier was builtbetween East and West Berlin and between East and West Germany.  12thJune 1987: American President Ronald Reagan visits Berlin and tries to persuadetheRussianleader to tear down the Berlin Wall. 10th September 1989: Hungaryopens ist border so that East German refugeescanescape.  9/10th November 1989: Berlin Wall isopened. 3rdOctober 1990: German isreunified.

  10. Ein Video Der Bau der Mauer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_sbWdc_vxc

  11. Grenzsignalzaun – Ifyoureachedthisfence, itwouldset off a silentalarmfortheguards so thattheywouldknow to come and getyou Die Berliner Mauer – Theactual “Berlin Wall”. Ifyoumanaged to getthis far, you’dhave to climbover 3.5 metres and thetop was rounded so you’dprobably just slip off... Beobachtungsturm – These towershadarmedguards in them and theywouldmakesure no onegotpast them. Manypeoplediedtrying to escape Hundelaufleine – Dogs wouldgo up and down thisbarrier and biteanyonethatcamenearthem Hinterlandmauer – First line of defence. Thisshouldhavestoppedanyonegoinganyfurther Sandstreifen – Thisline of sandwouldallowguards to seeifanyonehadgotthis far, butnotbeenseen... Lichtstraße – These powerfullightsmadesurethatit was as bright at night time as it was in theday Kfz-Sperre (1) – These crossesstood a couple of feet high and wouldstopcarsgettingpast Kontrollstreifen – Grassy “no-go” areathat was watched and lit up at night Kfz-Sperre (2) – Thisditch was a second way of stoppingcars Kolonnenweg – Thisset of tracksallowedtheguards to drivearound

  12. WhatdidGermany nowlooklike?

  13. Hannover Köln Frankfurt Nürnberg Stuttgart München Schleswig- Holstein Hamburg Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Bremen Brandenburg Niedersachsen Berlin Nordrhein- Westfalen Sachsen-Anhalt Sachsen Hessen Thüringen Rheinland- Pfalz Bayern Saarland Baden- Württemberg

  14. Schleswig- Holstein Hamburg Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Bremen Brandenburg Berlin Niedersachsen Nordrhein- Westfalen Sachsen-Anhalt Sachsen Hessen Thüringen Rheinland- Pfalz Bayern Saarland Baden- Württemberg

  15. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Brandenburg Fences, dogs, electricfences, land mines: all “protected” the East German border. Theydidinfactstopthe East Germansfromescaping. Sachsen-Anhalt Sachsen Thüringen Berlin

  16. Berlin: Berlin was a strangecase. The Western allies still controlledthe Western part of thecity. TheRussianscontrolledthe East. If, as an East German, youmanaged to getintothelittleislandthat was West Berlin, youcouldthenescape to West Germany!!  SO... The Berlin Wall was builtthroughthecentre of Berlin and fenceswerebuiltaroundtheedge. NOT to keep West Berliners in, BUT to keep East Germans OUT! Berlin

  17. Let’sRecap

  18. The Berlin Wall

  19. World War Twoisover! • Berlin isdividedinto 4 sectors:The American, British and French in the West and theRussian in the East.

  20. French, British and American sectors form the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) • Russianzonebecomesthe German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany)

  21. After Russianoccupation of Eastern Europe and East Germany themajority of thoselivingtherewanted to lead independent lives and wantedtheRussians to leave.

  22. Immigration to West Germany startedmainly in the 1950s.197,000 in 1950165,000 in 1951182,000 in 1952 and331,000 in 1953

  23. ThiscausedproblemsfortheRussiangovernmentbecausemostpeopleweregettingjobs in West Germany and the East German economy was failing!

  24. People leaving East Germany tended to beyoung, well educatedpeople and this was known as the “BrainDrain”. • It was a 50% increase of young, educatedpeopleleavingthe East.

  25. Eventually, when too many people had left, the Russians decided to build a Wall to stop people from leaving East Germany. • Construction started in August 1961

  26. Immediate Effects of the Berlin Wall • Families were split • People from the East were cut off from their jobs in the West

  27. When the wall was built, it was made of just wire fence, but over the years they made it into a concrete wall • It became 12 feet high and nearly 4 feet wide

  28. In 1975 they made the wall much harder to cross by adding dogs, bunkers, beds of nails, watch towers and anti vehicle trenches

  29. End of Part One

  30. Der Fall Der Mauer Jubiläum: 20 Jahre

  31. Objectives(twolessons): • To understandthemainreasonswhy Berlin and Germany weresplitintotwofor 28 years. • To understandhowthishappened. • To understandwhatit was like to live on bothsides of the wall. • To understandthemainreasonsbehindthedecision to knockthe wall down.

  32. Starter

  33. Whysplit up in thefirstplace? Western Allies’ way of government: Russian way of government: • Free electionswithmorethanone party to choosefrom • Industry and businessesownedbyindividualpeople • Government intefereslittlewithpeople’slives • Freedom of speech and movement • Onlyone party in thegovernment to choosefrom • All industry and businessesareownedbythestate • Individualsaren’tallowed to make lots of profits and money • Government controllesmostaspects of people’slives • Television, radio and newspapersare all controlledbythegovernment • No freedom of speech of movement (travelling)

  34. So... Whatwas life like? East and West?

  35. East OrWest?

  36. East OrWest? Positive OrNegative? Positive OrNegative?

  37. ''Until I was 18, I believed in the validity of the East German state. I was raised as an East German citizen and my mother is a Communist Party member. I did well in school, and was one of two people chosen in 1977 from 80 applicants to study law at the university. My fortunes changed when as a disc jockey in a student club I played a song suggesting that the Berlin wall should come down: They immediately fired me. And that meant I could never study at a university again. Finally, I was given a position as a clerk in a small chemical company. In an office argument with a drunken cleaning woman, I scornfully called her a communist pig! I got 15 months in maximum-security prison for that, because she went straight to the police.''

  38. “In our restaurant kitchen, we only had simple can openers like ones you use in homes. They were broken after the third use on the big cans we have here in the restaurant. So we opened cans with a hatchet. And as soon as we suggested any improvement, we were considered to be trouble causers” Most households could receive West German channels. Many people did that - my parents too, but they would be careful not to talk about it in public by fear of getting into trouble. Nonetheless, East Germans knew that West Germans had bigger cars and prettier houses. We usually did not travel far, as international travelling was heavily regulated. Me and my family traveled to Czech Republic a couple of times and once to Hungary. Destinations further than that seemed to be reserved for party sympathizers, some of whom were allowed to travel as far as Yugoslavia, Romania and Bulgaria.

  39. So... Howdiditall end?

  40. A lot of people were unhappy with the situation in East Germany. They wanted their freedom back. • They wanted to leave, despite the fact that there was a wall and dogs and guns and land mines etc. in the way.

  41. Many people tried to escape over the years, but they were mainly unsuccessful. • Of the tens of thousands of people who attempted to escape, only about 5,000 made it to West Germany.

  42. There were some pretty crazy attempts, such as:Flying a hot air balloon over the wallDigging tunnels with spoonsRamming through the wall with cars