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Off-grid Dendro Power. Sri Lanka About 1 - 1.5 million households in Sri Lanka will be left without grid-connected electricity. . Off-grid electricity generating technologies The approximate cost comparison Installation costs per 1kW Micro-hydro Rs 200,000

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Off-grid

Dendro Power


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Sri Lanka

About 1 - 1.5 million households in Sri Lanka will be left without grid-connected electricity.


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Off-grid electricity generating technologies

The approximate cost comparison

Installation costs per 1kW

Micro-hydro Rs 200,000

Dendro Rs 300,000

Bio-gas Rs 300,000

Wind Rs 600,000

Solar PV Rs 1,000,000


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Step 1: Moneragala District participatory workshop for sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

Step 2: Pre-feasibility studies in four off-grid villages

Step 3: Cross checking with CEB grid extension plans

Step 4: Selection of a village for the feasibility study


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Pilot Dendro Power Project in Wadakahakiula sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001


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Overall objective of the feasibility study sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

To examine whether necessary social conditions for setting up the proposed pilot plant exist in the village of Wadakahakiula.

An implementation plan should be developed with the active participation of intended beneficiaries and other stakeholders.

Wadagahakiula Project feasibility study: 2002 December


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  • Necessary conditions sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • Social acceptability of the community

  • Availability of the infrastructure for operation and maintenance of the plant,

  • Affordability of majority of the population to pay for electricity,

  • Enthusiasm of the community

  • To identify fuel-wood species

  • To assess the availability of fuel-wood in required quantities for operation of the dendro power plant.

  • To assess the potential for growing the fuel-wood if required


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  • Necessary conditions sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • To review and select the most appropriate energy conversion technology

  • To develop preliminary design of the dendro powered electrification system

  • To develop, the institutional mechanisms necessary for implementation and post implementation management

  • To prepare cost estimates of the project

  • To establish a tariff structure for sustainable operation and management of the power plant


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Study Methodology sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • Social assessment – 2day participatory workshop with 60 households

  • Questionnaire based survey of all households – survey carried out by selected village members

  • Fuelwood survey – based on field assessment.

  • Distribution system design – based on field survey

  • Siting of powerhouse – based on technical and social concerns

  • Institutional and management system – developed through a participatory workshop


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Profile of the Village sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • Suggested by CEB Uva office

  • Situated in Badalkumbura DS area

  • 3 km away from grid

  • Permanent houses – 38%

  • Semi-permanent houses – 36%

  • Temporary houses – 26%

  • Main source of income – Pepper cultivation (68% of households)

  • Land ownership – 1 to 3 acres per household (74%)

  • Average monthly income – Rs.6000 per household

  • Current monthly expenditure on energy – approximately Rs.500 per household


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Project Profile sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • No. of beneficiary households – 100

  • Max. demand – 250W per house

  • Period of electricity demand – 5 to 7am and 6 to 10pm

  • Main uses of electricity – lighting, TV, Radio, iron

  • Technology – Gasifier system

  • Mode of operation – 100% gas

  • Fuelwood type – Gliricidia (Nanchi)

  • Fuelwood availability – widely grown in the village for fencing and pepper planting


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Major Conclusions from the Feasibility Study sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • Community participation is active however there are no well established CBOs exist in the village.

  • Priority list 1- education 2- unemployment 3- electricity

  • Willingness to obtain electricity – 94% of the households.

  • Opportunities exist to initiate income-generating activities.

  • Affordability of households to pay for electricity is high. At least 90% of the households are able become its direct beneficiaries.

  • Availability of natural, human and financial resources is high.

  • Fuelwood supply from existing plantations is more than enough for the plant.

  • Dendro technology is mature for deployment in a village scheme.


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Social Risks predicted sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • Grid electricity may come to the village through political interventions.

  • In the event of grid electricity is provided to the village, potential to access grid electricity is high because of the high affordability among people.


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Project Parameters sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

Buildings

Power house (L x W x H) - 18m x 6m x 6m


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Project Parameters sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

Buildings

Fuel wood store - 12m x 6m x 4m


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Project Parameters sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

Buildings

Well (Diameter x depth) - 5m x 6m


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Project Parameters sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

Distribution lines

Concrete Poles - 450 nos.

Three phase length - 600 m

Two phase length - 400 m

Single phase length - 8100 m

Service cables (Insulated) - 4000 m

Area targeted electrified - 2 km radius

Distribution losses @ 15% net - 4.5 kW

Per h/h power allocation - 250 W

Cables 1,352,622.00

Poles 1,021,500.00

Labor 112,935.00

Other 51,926.00

Total 2,538,983.00


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Project Parameters sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

Power plant capacity - 35 kW

Net out put - 30 kW

Prime Generator - 10 kVA

Machinery

System Installation

Electrical equipment and installation

Accessory Diesel Gen set


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Dendro Power plant sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001


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Project Parameters sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

No of households

Planned - 100

Currently connected - 58

Total h/h requirements - 25 kW

Operation hours per day - 6 hours (4.45 a.m. to 6.45 a.m. & 6.30 p.m. to10.30 p.m.)

Fuel wood species - Gliricidia Sepium

Fuel wood requirement - 60kg/ hr

Fuel wood supplying area (Existing Plantations) - 2 km radius


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Running Cost sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

1. Month - 15th April to 14th May 2005 (58 families)

Operating hours - 4 hours (6.30 pm to 10.30 pm)

Fuel wood - Rs. 11,250

Diesel (3Lts / hr) - Rs. 2,000

Wages - Operator & Helper - Rs. 11,000

Maintenance fund - Rs. 5,000

Society - Rs. 1,000

Total - Rs. 30,250

Monthly Electricity bill per household - Rs. 356 (84 houses)

Average income per household for supplying fuel wood - Rs. 70

2. Estimated cost for the month 15th May 2005 to 14th June 2005

Operating hours - 6 hours

Fuel wood - Rs. 16,875

Diesel (3Lts / hr) - Rs. 4,000

Wages - Operator & Helper - Rs. 15,625

Maintenance fund - Rs. 5,000

Society - Rs. 1,000

Total - Rs. 42,500


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Fuel wood sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

Monthly Electricity bill per household - Rs. 500

Price of fuel wood at Farm gate - Rs. 200/ m3; Rs. 1/ kg

Price of fuel wood at Power house gate - Rs. 375/m3; Rs 1.88/kg

Monthly payment for fuel wood transportation - Rs. 7,875

Average income per household for supplying fuel wood - Rs. 106


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  • Issues sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • The confrontation between the fuel wood supplier and the farmers.

  • President of the society did not get the electricity from the system

  • Rumor - politicians promises for grid electricity supply

  • Plant is not for the community but for the EF -being a fully funded project

  • The consumers concerns on high electricity bill

  • Resentment among some of the consumers regarding the operator and helper

  • The enthusiasm among the others in the dendro sector regarding the project


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Affordability of the households to pay for electricity sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

Total monthly cost incurred by a rich family on three energy items (Kerosene, dry battery and car battery) is approximately Rs.563/-

An average family, the monthly cost is around Rs.521/-.

The poor families spend approximately Rs.293/- per month.

At least the rich and the average families who constitute the majority of the families in the three hamlets are able to afford to pay for their electricity consumption if the cost to be incurred by them is in the range of Rs.400-500 per month.

If other social benefits that a household would accrue from using electricity such as better lighting, reduced risks of accidents, use of other electric appliances, social status etc. are also added to this economic cost, household expenditure on electricity is very much compensated and justified.


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  • Possible options sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • Allow the community to explore the possibility of grid extension

  • Allow the community to explore the possibility of getting subsidy from any agency

  • Forget injustice and have a compromise with the supplier

  • Explore the possibility of introducing an income generating activity using day time power to lift the burden on the consumer

  • Please give us 3 more months to rectify the situation.


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  • Possible future options for off-grid dendro power sensitising the district government officials, community based organisations and farmer groups - Nov 2001

  • (We have a market of 20,000 villages)

  • Try to establish a household level electrical appliance package to reduce the capacity

  • Try to integrate an income generating activity at the initial stage itself

  • Follow the grid connected dendro and approach the off-grid villages which provide fuel wood to grid dendro plant


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