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Questions to check your understanding:. What happened to Phineas Gage? What philosophical tradition views the mind and body as separate? Define reductionism Explain what ‘Morgan's law of parsimony’ is. Why is the biological LOA reductionist?

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questions to check your understanding
Questions to check your understanding:
  • What happened to Phineas Gage?
  • What philosophical tradition views the mind and body as separate?
  • Define reductionism
  • Explain what ‘Morgan's law of parsimony’ is.
  • Why is the biological LOA reductionist?
  • Why can taking a reductionist approach sometimes be problematic?
  • What's the difference between dualism & materialism?
  • Why is it important to take a holistic approach?
  • What is biological determinism?
  • What is genetic determinism?
the ib syllabus says
The IB Syllabus says:
  • Using one or more examples, explain the effects of neurotransmission on behavior
learning goals
Learning goals………
  • Gain an understanding of the anatomy of the neuron & how neuronal transmission works
  • Explain the effect of neurotransmitters on human behavior (serotonin & depression)
  • Examine structure and function on the brain, as well as ‘neural plasticity’
the decade of the brain
“The decade of the brain”
  • The 1990s was called the ‘decade of the brain’
  • We learnt more than ever before
  • New technologies such brain scanning machines allowed researchers to identify areas of the brain active during different activities - fMRI, PET
neural and hormonal systems

Neural and Hormonal Systems

Will Explain Why We FEEL……

Nervous

Strong

Sick

Pain

the neuron
The Neuron
  • The nerve cells of the brain are called neurons. The average brain has 100 billion neurons
  • Neurons are different from other cells because fibers that extend out from the cell body, allowing it to receive and transmit messages – this are called dendrites
  • An axon is a single long fiber extending out from the cells body –its job is to to pick up incoming messages from other neurons
  • There is a white fatty covering that covers the axon called a myelin sheath. Its function is to provide insulation, and ensure that signals from adjacent neurons don’t interfere with each other. Myelin also increases the speed of transmission
slide9
Neuron Structure

Neurons do NOT touch each other- the space in between is call the synapse.

the synapse
The Synapse
  • The gap between neurons is called the synapse
  • At the end of each axon there a synaptic button - neuronal impulses must cross the synaptic gap to travel to the next neuron
  • This transfer is made by chemicals called neurotransmitters, released when synaptic vesicles release when the neural impulse reaches the terminals
  • Each neurotransmitter has its own specific receptor cite – just like a key that fits a lock
slide11
Activity – label the diagram with the following and describe the mechanism of neural transmission – Crane 39 &40; slides 11-16.
  • Dendrites
  • Cell nucleus
  • Cell Body
  • Axon
  • Myelin sheath
  • Terminal buttons
how do neurons communicate with each other
How do neurons communicate with each other?
  • Neurons ‘talk to each other’ or communicate through electrochemical impulses
  • These are simple ‘yes’ ‘no’ or ‘on/off’ impulses
  • A neuron is either at rest or activated
slide17
The neuron

The synapse

Relay activity: label both as quickly as

possible

types of neurons
Types of Neurons

Sensory Neurons

Motor Neurons

Inter Neurons

sensory neurons afferent neurons
Sensory Neurons(Afferent Neurons)
  • Take information from the senses to the brain.
inter neurons
Inter Neurons
  • Take messages from Sensory Neurons to other parts of the brain or to Motor Neurons.
motor neurons efferent neurons
Motor Neurons(Efferent Neurons)
  • Take information from brain to the rest of the body.
quick quiz the neuron
Quick Quiz: The Neuron
  • What are the nerve cells of the brain called? How many of these does the average human have?
  • What makes the neuron different from other cells?
  • What is an axon?
  • What is the white fatty covering that covers the axon? What's its function?
  • What are neurons that collect messages from the sense organs and carry them to the brain called?
  • What are neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or the brain are called?
  • What do glial cells do?
  • How do neurons ‘talk to each other’?
  • What happens to the membrane of the neuron when it is resting?
  • When the neuron is at rest – where are there more negative ions, on the inside or the outside?
  • What does an inflow of sodium from the pores in the cell membrane do?
slide23
The synapse: Questions to check your understanding

The Synapse

1)) What is the name of the gap between neurons?

2) What is at the end of each axon?

3) What must the neuronal impulses do to travel to the next neuron?

4) What is the transfer between neurons made by?

5) What do the synaptic vesicles release when the neural impulse reaches the terminals?

6) Why is this described as a ‘lock & key’ process’?

neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
  • Chemical messengers released by terminal buttons through the synapse.
  • Neurotransmitters have been studied quite a bit in relation to psychology and human behavior.
  • What we have found is that several neurotransmitters play a role in the way we behave, learn, the way we feel, and sleep.
  • And, some play a role in mental illnesses. The following are those neurotransmitters which play a significant role in our mental health.
acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
  • Its function is motor movement and maybe memory.

Too much and you will….??

Not enough and you will….??

Lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

dopamine
Dopamine

Its function is motor movement and alertness.

Lack of dopamine is associated with Parkinson’s disease.

Overabundance is associated with schizophrenia.

serotonin
Serotonin
  • Function deals with mood control.

Lack of serotonin has been linked to depression.

endorphins
Endorphins
  • Function - deals with pain control.

We become addicted to endorphin causing feelings.

slide30
Neurotransmitters and their Effects
  • Please note that these associations are merely correlations, and do not necessarily demonstrate any cause and effect relationship.
  • We don’t know what other variables may be affecting both the neurotransmitter and the mental illness, and we don’t know if the change in the neurotransmitter causes the illness, or the illness causes the change in the neurotransmitter
the effect of serotonin on human behavior focus on depression
Using one or more examples, explain the effects of neurotransmission on behaviorThe effect of serotonin on human behavior -focus on depression
  • Serotonin is a neurotransmitter and it has several functions in humans:
  • the regulation of intestinal movements,
  • the regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, muscle contraction,
  • cognitive functions including memory and learning.
the effect of serotonin on human behavior
The effect of serotonin on human behavior
  • Research with non human animals suggests serotonin appear to have a role in social behavior:
  • Kravitz (1988) injected lobsters with serotonin and found that they behaved like a dominant animal
  • With humans, a great deal of research has been done on the connection between serotonin and depression
the monoamine hypothesis
The Monoamine hypothesis
  • Barlow (1995) found that low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin,norepinephrine and dopamine in the synaptic gap between neurons in the brain, are associated with depression
  • Because of this, psychoactive drugs have been developed to increase the effect peoples behavior by increasing amount of these monoamines at the synapse, these are called SSRI’s,MAOI’s & TCA’s they have been very successful
depression
Depression

- One of most common reason for going to the doctor 20% lifetime risk.

Clinical Characteristics of Unipolar Depression

quick quiz
Quick quiz:
  • What is at the end of each axon?
  • Neurotransmitters need to cross the synaptic _________ and bind onto receptor cites.
  • Give four clinical characteristics of depression
  • What did Kravitz (1988) find out about serotonin?
  • What is serotonin? What role does it play in humans and animals?
  • What is the monoamine hypothesis?
  • What does SSRI stand for?
  • How do these work?
in pairs read and explain one section
In pairs, read and explain one section:
  • TCA’s
  • MAOIs
  • SSRI’s
  • Effectiveness in reducing symptoms
  • Comparing effectiveness and side effects of TCAs and MAOIs
  • Prozac, the wonder drug?
  • Use of anti depressants with older and younger people
the different types of antidepressants
The different types of antidepressants
  • Monoamine-oxidize inhibitors (MAOIs)
  • This antidepressant was discovered by accident when a new drug for TB was found to induce euphoria.
  • MAOIs work by blocking the action of the enzyme that breaks down nor-adrenaline and serotonin, so this increases the availability of these neurotransmitters in the nervous system
  • Tricyclics (TCAs)
  • These work in a similar way to MAOIs but are milder antidepressant, although they are slower in acting, the have fewer severe side effects
  • Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • SSRIs such as Prozac inhibit the re-uptake of serotonin at the synapse and thus make more of the neurotransmitter available.
  • Recently the natural herb hypericum, commonly known as St. Johns Wort has been found in clinical trials to have anti-depressant qualities with very few side effects. It is thought that the herb alters serotonin function in some way.
evaluation the use of antidepressants
Evaluation: The use of antidepressants
  • Effective in reducing symptoms – Antidepressents have been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of severe depression in around 65% to 75% of cases, compared to 33% for placebos (Prien et al, 1988)
  • Comparing effectiveness and side effects of TCAs and MAOIs – Spiegel (1989) found that around 65% of depressed patients improved with tricyclics (TCAs), although there are potential side effects, the most serious being cardiac problems
  • MAOIs are equally effective, but require dietary restriction and can react dangerously with other drugs such as cold remedies. Tricyclics are prescribed more often because they are milder and have less severe side effects
evaluation the use of antidepressants1
Evaluation: The use of antidepressants
  • Prozac, the wonder drug? – Prozac (an SSRI) was hailed the ‘wonder drug’ when it was first introduced in the late 1980s and it is currently the most frequently prescribed of all anti depressants. However, it has recently become a media target because of many anecdotal reports of serious side effects, including a preoccupation with violence and suicide in users (Steiner, 1991)
  • Use with older and younger people – antidepressants are less effective with children, but very effective with older people, although with more side effects
questions to check your understanding1
Questions to check your understanding:
  • What does MAOI stand for? How to they work?
  • What is the most commonly prescribed of all antidepressants?
  • How effective are antidepressants in reducing the symptoms of depression?
  • With which age group are antidepressants more effective, older or younger people?
quick quiz1
Quick quiz
  • What is serotonin?
  • What is the monoamine hypothesis?
  • What does SSRI stand for? How do they work?
  • What does MAOI stand for? How to they work?
  • What is the most commonly prescribed of all antidepressants?
  • How effective are antidepressants in reducing the symptoms of depression?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of drug treatments?
  • With which age group are antidepressants more effective, older or younger people?
saq planning activity
SAQ Planning activity
  • Using one or more examples, describe the effects of neurotransmission on behavior
  • Using one or more examples, explain the effects of neurotransmission on behavior
  • Using one or more examples, analyze the effects of neurotransmission on behavior
slide43
SAQ Planning activity: ExampleUsing one or more examples, describe the effects of neurotransmission on behavior
  • Say at the start how you will answer the question
  • Describe how neurons communicate with each other: axon & the synapse
  • Highlight the importance of neurotransmitter Serotonin & the monoamine hypothesis
  • Give further detail on how antidepressant drugs work
  • Conclude by going back to the question
neural plasticity
Neural Plasticity
  • Neural plasticity is the ability of the brain to change structurally and chemically by experience.
  • Rosenzwig’s (1984) experiment with rats showed that enriched environments – larger neurons in the rats – so the brain is organized as a result of experience.
  • Neurogensis is growth of new brain cells.
rosenzweig s 1984 study of neural plasticity
Rosenzweig’s (1984) study of neural plasticity
  • Aim: To examine the effect of environment on neuronal development
  • Procedure: Laboratory experiment
  • IV – environment of the rats (enriched/ impoverished)
  • DV – Neuronal development in post mortem
  • Findings: Enriched environment – larger neurons with more synaptic connections
  • Conclusion: The environment can influence neurons – neural plasticity
  • Criticisms: Ethics? Does it apply to humans?
reading homework
Reading Homework
  • Read page 47 to 57 in the textbook and make notes on the class and text notes worksheet.
  • Also answer the questions on the reading
p 47 57 questions to check your understanding
P.47-57 Questions to check your understanding
  • What era was called the ‘decade of the brain?’ why?

The Neuron

  • What are the nerve cells of the brain? How many of these does the average human have?
  • What makes the neuron different from other cells?
  • What is an axon? What’s its job?
  • What is the white fatty covering that covers the axon? What's its function
  • What are neurons that collect messages from the sense organs and carry them to the brain called?
  • What are neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or the brain are called?
  • What do glial cells do?
  • How do neurons ‘talk to each other’?
  • What happens to the membrane of the neuron when it is resting?
  • When the neuron is at rest – where are there more negative ions, on the inside or the outside
  • How is a resting or polarized neuron compared to a guitar string?
  • What does an inflow of sodium from the pores in the cell membrane do?
  • How long does it take for a neuron to ‘fire’?
  • What is a graded potential?
  • What must be exceeded for the neuron to fire?
  • Does the neurons connections to other neurons determine whether the neuron is likely to fire or not?
slide50
P.47-57 Questions to check your understanding

The Synapse

1)) What is the name of the gap between neurons?

2) What is at the end of each axon?

3) What must the neuronal impulses do to travel to the next neuron?

4) What is the transfer between neurons made by ?

5) What do the synaptic vesicles release when the neural impulse reaches the terminals?

6) What does each neurotransmitter have?

7) What does the neurotransmitter ACh do?

8) What does the neurotransmitter dopamine do?

9) What does the neurotransmitter serotonin do?

10) What does do the neurotransmitter endorphins do? How is this linked to heroin addiction

Psychopharmacology

1) What do psychoactive drugs do? Give one example.

Neural Plasticity

1)What is neural plasticity?

2) What did Rosenzweig’s (1984) experiment with rats show

3) What is neurogensis?

p 47 57 questions to check your understanding answers
P.47-57 Questions to check your understanding answers
  • What era was called the ‘decade of the brain?’ why? ( 1990s – learnt more than ever – new technologies – brain scanning machines allowed researchers to identify areas of the brain active during different activities)

The Neuron

  • What are the nerve cells of the brain? How many of these does the average human have (neurons, 100 billion)
  • What makes the neuron different from other cells? (fibers that extend out from the cell body, allowing it to receive and transmit messages- dendrites)
  • What is an axon? What’s its job? (a single long fiber extending out from the cells body – to pick up incoming messages from other neurons)
  • What is the white fatty covering that covers the axon? What's its function (myelin sheath, it provides insulation, and ensures that signals from adjacent neurons don’t interfere with each other & increases the speed of transmission)
  • What are neurons that collect messages from the sense organs and carry them to the brain called? (sensory/ afferent neurons)
  • What are neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or the brain are called? (motor/ efferent neurons)
  • What do glial cells do? (hold the neurons in place, remove waste, prevent harmful substances from passing from the bloodstream to the brain)
  • How do neurons ‘talk to each other’? (electrochemical impulses)
  • What happens to the membrane of the neuron when it is resting? (a partial barrier is formed between the inside and outside of the neuron – the solution contains ions
  • When the neuron is at rest – where are there more negative ions, on the inside or the outside (on the inside – that’s why there is a small resting potential called the resting potential)
  • How is a resting or polarized neuron compared to a guitar string? (its like a guitar string that has been pulled and not released – all that is needed to generate the neurons potential is this release of tension.
  • What does on inflow of sodium from the pores in the cell membrane do ( depolarizes the neuron – the inside becomes positively changed – sets off a chain reaction – more sodium flows in, and an electrical charge, called a neural impulse or action potential travels down the axon – like a fuse burning from one end to the other)
  • How long does it take for a neuron to ‘fie’? (a few milliseconds)
  • What is a graded potential? (small eclectic charges – not enough to fire the neuron)
  • What must be exceeded for the neuron to fire? (threshold of excitation)
  • Does the neurons connections to other neurons determine whether the neuron is likely to fire or not? (its receiving messages form these neurons, a constant interplay of excitatory or inhibitory)
p 47 57 questions to check your understanding answers1
P.47-57 Questions to check your understanding answers

The Neuron

  • What are the nerve cells of the brain? How many of these does the average human have (neurons, 100 billion)
  • What makes the neuron different from other cells? (fibers that extend out from the cell body, allowing it to receive and transmit messages- dendrites)
  • What is an axon? What’s its job? (a single long fiber extending out from the cells body – to pick up incoming messages from other neurons)
  • What is the white fatty covering that covers the axon? What's its function (myelin sheath, it provides insulation, and ensures that signals from adjacent neurons don’t interfere with each other & increases the speed of transmission)
  • What are neurons that collect messages from the sense organs and carry them to the brain called? (sensory/ afferent neurons)
  • What are neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or the brain are called? (motor/ efferent neurons)
  • What do glial cells do? (hold the neurons in place, remove waste, prevent harmful substances from passing from the bloodstream to the brain)
  • How do neurons ‘talk to each other’? (electrochemical impulses)
  • What happens to the membrane of the neuron when it is resting? (a partial barrier is formed between the inside and outside of the neuron – the solution contains ions
  • When the neuron is at rest – where are there more negative ions, on the inside or the outside (on the inside – that’s why there is a small resting potential called the resting potential)
  • How is a resting or polarized neuron compared to a guitar string? (its like a guitar string that has been pulled and not released – all that is needed to generate the neurons potential is this release of tension.
  • What does an inflow of sodium from the pores in the cell membrane do ( depolarizes the neuron – the inside becomes positively charged – sets off a chain reaction – more sodium flows in, and an electrical charge, called a neural impulse or action potential travels down the axon – like a fuse burning from one end to the other)
  • How long does it take for a neuron to ‘fire’? (a few milliseconds)
  • What is a graded potential? (small eclectic charges – not enough to fire the neuron)
  • What must be exceeded for the neuron to fire? (threshold of excitation)
  • Does the neurons connections to other neurons determine whether the neuron is likely to fire or not? (its receiving messages form these neurons, a constant interplay of excitatory or inhibitory)
slide53
P.47-57 Questions to check your understanding answers

The Synapse

1)) What is the name of the gap between neurons (the synapse)

2) What is at the end of each axon (a synaptic button)

3) What must the neuronal impulses do to travel to the next neuron/ (cross the synaptic gap)

4) What is the transfer made by (chemicals)

5) What do the synaptic vesicles release when the neural impulse reaches the terminals? (neurotransmitters)

6) What does each neurotransmitter have (its own specific receptor cite – just like a key that fits a lock)

7) What does the neurotransmitter ACh do? (plays a critical role in arousal, attention, memory and motivation)

8) What does the neurotransmitter dopamine do? (associated with learning memory and emotions)

9) What does the neurotransmitter serotonin do? (mood molecule – effects our mood and emotions – low serotonin linked to depression)

10) What does do the neurotransmitter endorphins do? How is this linked to heroin addiction (transmit pain messages in the brain – drug abuse leads to less of the natural painkillers – so addicts need more of the drug)

Psychopharmacology

1) What do psychoactive drugs do? Give one example. (block or enhance transmission – e.g. caffeine increases exitarity arousing neurotransmitters)

Neural Plasticity

1)What is neural plasticity? (the ability of the brain to change structurally and chemically by experience)

2) What did Rosenzwig’s (1984) experiment with rats show (enriched environments – larger neurons – brain organized as a result of experience)

3) What is neigensis? (growth of new brain cells)

neurotransmitters and their effects
Neurotransmitters and their Effects
  • ACh plays a critical role in arousal, attention, memory and motivation
  • Dopamine is associated with learning memory and emotions
  • Serotonin is the mood molecule – effects our mood and emotions – low serotonin linked to depression
  • Endorphins transmit pain messages in the brain. Heroin addiction drug abuse leads to less of the natural painkillers – so addicts need more of the drug.
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