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Chapter 14-1 Groundwater. Pages 298-315 Geology. Groundwater. Factors that affect the amount of seepage of water into the ground are: Type of rock or soil on the ground where the water falls Climate, topography, land use, vegetation. Porosity.

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Chapter 14 1 groundwater

Chapter 14-1 Groundwater

Pages 298-315

Geology


Groundwater
Groundwater

Factors that affect the amount of seepage of water into the ground are:

  • Type of rock or soil on the ground where the water falls

  • Climate, topography, land use, vegetation


Porosity
Porosity

  • The percent of a materials volume that is pore space – the more the space, the more water that can be held.

  • Depends on:

    • Particle shape

      • More rounded particles allows for more pore spaces

    • Sorting

      • Well sorted material (same size) offers greatest pore spaces


Permeability
Permeability

  • The rate at which water or other liquids pass through the pore spaces of a rock.

    • Permeability increases with grain size

    • Ex: sand and gravel is highly permeable while clay and shale has low permeability.

    • So, can a rock be highly porous but not be permeable? – explain…

    • Or, can a nonporous rock become highly permeable?


The water table
The water table

  • The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation

  • Above this level up to the surface, the ground can still hold more water, and this area is called the zone of aeration

    • This zone of aeration contains 3 parts:


Chapter 14 1 groundwater

  • The three parts of the zone of aeration are:

    • 1) capillary fringe

      • Found just above the water table, where water rises due to water’s attraction to the soil particles.

      • This is called Capillary action

    • 2) a dry region of soil except after rainfall

    • 3) organic or humus layer just below the surface



How is the water table important
How is the water table important? table

  • Seepage from water table keeps streams flowing between rain events

  • Maintains water levels of lakes and wetlands

  • Provides drinking water from natural springs and human-made wells


Types of wells
Types of wells table

  • Ordinary well

    • Water must be pumped out of the well

  • Artesian well

    • Well water is under some pressure to force the water up the well – does not have to be to the top.

      Large volumes of water found underground in the pore spaces is called an aquifer.

      ***best aquifers are those made of uncemented sands and gravel, followed by porous sandstones.



How does a geyser occur
How does a geyser occur? table

  • Geyser animation


Conserving groundwater water budgets

Conserving Groundwater - Water Budgets table

Chapter 14-2

Pages 306-307


Water budget
Water budget table

  • Describes the income and spending of water for a region.

    • The income is rain or snow

    • The spending includes water loss by use, runoff, and by evapotranspiration.

      • Weather is the controlling factor of evapotranspiration

        - when temperatures are high, the amount of evapotranspiration would also increase.

        - the opposite is also true, low temperature causes low evapotranspiration.


Four parts of a water budget
Four parts of a water budget table

  • Recharge

    • When moisture is added to the groundwater, the soil water storage is filling

  • Surplus

    • Occurs when the rainfall is greater than the need for moisture, and the storage water is filled

  • Usage

    • If the need for moisture is greater than the rainfall and the plants draw water from the soil water supply

  • Deficit

    • Occurs when the need for moisture is greater than the rainfall and the soil water is gone.




Water conservation
Water conservation table

  • In many regions, water is being used at a faster rate than can be naturally replenished.

    Pollution is also threatening many groundwater supplies



Overuse of groundwater
Overuse of groundwater table

  • When groundwater supplies are depleted, the water table drops

    • This may cause wells, springs to go dry

    • If this happens along coastal regions, salt water may seep into overused freshwater aquifers and damage water supplies by making them salty and unusable.


Chapter 14 1 groundwater


Sinkholes may form from loss of groundwater
Sinkholes may form to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.from loss of groundwater


Chapter 14 1 groundwater

  • In Florida


Groundwater pollution
Groundwater pollution to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.

  • Groundwater may become polluted by human activities:

    • Fertilizer

    • Oil from roadways

    • Pesticides

    • Sewage from septic tanks and sewers

    • Hazardous wastes from industry

    • Toxic waste dumps (Love Canal – New York)


Images of love canal
Images of Love Canal to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.


Groundwater and geology

Groundwater and Geology to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.

Chapter 14-3

Pages 309-311


Geologic formations formed by groundwater
Geologic formations formed by groundwater to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.

  • Groundwater moving through bedrock may take in dissolved minerals.

  • This water is now called “hard water”.

    Calcium ions is most common mineral in hard H2O

    • What do we do at home to reduce hard water?

  • Hard water causes water spots, poor washing

  • Artesian water is usually harder than regular groundwater

  • Groundwater is almost always harder than river water


  • Mineral deposits
    Mineral deposits to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.

    • When water evaporates or cools, it will leave behind any minerals that were dissolved in the water.

      • Examples: geyserite, geodes, mineral veins of copper, quartz, gold, silver, calcite, etc.

    • Petrified wood is formed when minerals replace decaying wood of buried trees

    • Calcite is most common dissolved mineral cement for grains of sand and pebbles.


    Mineral springs
    Mineral springs to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.

    • A spring with a high concentration of mineral matter

      • May be due to:

        • Hot water

        • Water passes through easily dissolved minerals

        • Water contains large quantity of gases

    • Some mineral springs areas have become health resorts – Hot Springs, Arkansas

    • Yellowstone’s Mammoth Hot Springs forms calcium deposits called traventine


    Caverns
    Caverns to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.

    • Formed in areas with limestone bedrock

    • Limestone is dissolved by carbonic acid found in the groundwater

      • Dripstone

      • Stalactites

      • Stalagmites

        • When they meet, they form columns or pillars

    • Examples include Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, caves of Calumet and Door County, WI, Eagle Cave west of Madison


    Karst topography
    Karst Topography to compaction of the removal of groundwater below.

    • Identified by sinkholes, sinkhole ponds, fissures, lost rivers, and underground rivers

    • Created when caverns collapse

    • Forms where bedrock is made of calcite or dolomite

    • Found in south-central Kentucky, Door County, WI