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The Brain

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  • Uploaded on The Brain. Review Questions. 1) Which brain imaging technique injects a substance in order to view active areas of the brain because of glucose or oxygen consumption? PET Scan

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review questions
Review Questions

1) Which brain imaging technique injects a substance in order to view active areas of the brain because of glucose or oxygen consumption?

PET Scan

2) Which brain imaging technique graphs brain waves and is mostly used for sleep research?


3) Which brain imaging technique combines cross-sectional x-rays to view the structure of the brain?

CT Scan


4) Too little of this neurotransmitter is associated with Parkinson’s?


5) Too little of this NT is associated with anxiety disorders?


6) Too little of this NT is associated with Alzheimer’s

ACh (acetylcholine)

7) Too little of this NT is associated with depression?

Serotonin (or norephinephrine)

8) Too much of this NT is associated with schizophrenia?


today s goal you will be able to
Today’s Goal  You will be able to…
  • Describe the functions of the brain structures.
  • Medulla: unconscious vital functions like breathing, circulation, etc.
  • Pons: sleep & dreaming, assists in movement
  • Reticular Formation: wakefulness & sleep, alertness, filters stimuli

Integrates types of sensory info and muscle movements

limbic system
Limbic System
  • Thalamus:

Relays sensory info from the body to parts of the brain

  • Amygdala:

Emotional responses, particularly aggression; attention to novel stimuli

limbic system10
Limbic System
  • Hypothalamus:

Maintains homeostasis: regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, blood pressure, hormones, etc.


Formation of memories

  • Pituitary Gland:

“Master gland” – secretes hormones

which part of the brain
Which part of the brain?

 Pons

 Thalamus

  • REM sleep & dreaming, assists in movement
  • Relay station for sensory info
  • “On switch” for the brain, alertness & wakefulness, attention
  • Body temperature, hunger, thirst, glands
  • Balance and motor coordination
  • Emotions (aggression), novel stimuli
  • “Master gland”
  • Unconscious essential functions such as respiration and heart rate
  • Formation of new memories

 R.A.S.


 Cerebellum

 Amygdala

 Pituitary gland

 Medulla

 Hippocampus

  • Cerebrum:

Surface of brain, two hemispheres, thinking & language

hemispheres of cerebrum
Hemispheres of Cerebrum
  • Left Hemisphere:

Logic, language, math, details

  • Right Hemisphere:

Visual-spatial tasks, creativity (art & music)


Corpus Callosum:

Thick bundle of fibers which connects the two hemispheres

cerebral cortex
Cerebral Cortex
  • Cerebral Cortex: Wrinkled, convoluted surface – divided into four lobes
frontal lobe
Frontal Lobe

Speaking, voluntary movement, judgment, planning, personality

parietal lobe
Parietal Lobe
  • Receives incoming touch, pressure, and pain sensations from the body
occipital lobe
Occipital Lobe

Located at the rear of the brain

Involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information

temporal lobe
Temporal Lobe

Located on the side, slightly above ears

Involved in reception and interpretation of auditory stimuli


Motor Cortex: Rear of frontal lobes, voluntary movements

language the brain
Language & the Brain
  • Broca’s Area:

Physical production of speech

  • Broca’s Aphasia:

Inability to physically speak words

language the brain25
Language & the Brain
  • Wernicke’s Area:

Comprehension of language

  • Wernicke’s Aphasia:

Inability to understand language/words

“Word salad”


review questions27
Review Questions
  • Name the fatty substance around the axon which speeds up the neural impulse.


  • Which neurotransmitter is responsible for memory and movement, in which a deficiency is associated w/Alzheimer’s?

Acetylcholine (ACh)

  • The fluid-filled gap between neurons is the….?


  • When a neuron is at -70 millivolts, it is at its….

Resting potential


Which neurotransmitter reduces anxiety?


  • Which nervous system is responsible for our “fight-or-flight” response to stress, in which our heart rate & respiration increase?

Sympathetic NS

  • Which brain imaging technique combines cross-sectional x-rays to view the structure of the brain?

CAT Scan

  • Which neurotransmitter deals with movement and the experience of pleasure or pain?



Which brain imaging technique involves the person lying in a magnetic field while radio waves detect changes in blood flow?


  • Which part of the brain is responsible for physically producing speech?

Broca’s Area

  • Which brain imaging technique injects a substance in order to view active areas of the brain because of glucose or oxygen consumption?

PET Scan

  • Which neurotransmitter is involved in mood, concentration, appetite, and sleep?


left hemisphere rational logical
Left Hemisphere: Rational, Logical
  • Language
  • Math
  • Responds to verbal instructions
  • Right side of body
right hemisphere intuitive artistic
Right Hemisphere: Intuitive, Artistic
  • Visual imagery
  • Music
  • Spatial abilities
  • Responds to demonstrated instructions
  • Left side of the body
the split brain experiments
The Split-Brain Experiments
  • 1960’s, Roger Sperry
  • Epilepsy – seizures spread to other hemisphere through corpus callosum
  • In his operations, the entire corpus callosum was severed – hemispheres completely independent of one another
  • "The great pleasure and feeling in my right brain is more than my left brain can find the words to tell you.“ ~Roger Sperry
the split brain experiments35
The Split-Brain Experiments
  • Michael Gazzaniga – more experiments
    • Patients appeared normal (talk, read, alert, etc.)
  • BUT…if patient held up something like coffee cup in left hand, couldn’t speak its name
    • If object in right hand, no trouble at all
  • Printed word “LOUSE” visible only in left visual field, couldn’t read  put in right side, could read it fine

Right vision field is connected to the left hemisphere. Left vision field is connected to the right hemisphere.

split brain operations
Split-Brain Operations
  • Only sever portion of corpus callosum (splenium remains intact)
  • Split brain patients learn very quickly how to keep both sides in communication
the two brain myth
The Two-Brain Myth
  • There is no activity to which only one hemisphere makes a contribution.
    • While they “specialize” in areas, the areas are not completely exclusive to one hemi
  • Logic not completely confined to left hemisphere
    • People with damage to right hemi. show more deficits in logic than damage to left hemi.
  • It is impossible to educate one hemisphere at a time.
  • There is no evidence that people are purely “left-brained” or “right-brained”