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Principles of Aquaculture Diagnostics. Dr. Craig Kasper FAS 2253 Fall 2006. Introduction. Readings from Chapters 1-5 of Noga (1996) What are diagnostic tests?

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Principles of aquaculture diagnostics

Principles of Aquaculture Diagnostics

Dr. Craig Kasper

FAS 2253

Fall 2006


Introduction
Introduction

  • Readings from Chapters 1-5 of Noga (1996)

  • What are diagnostic tests?

    A series of tests designed to determine the health status of a healthy population of animals vs. that of a population of animals deemed unhealthy. (Healthy vs. sick)


Introduction1
Introduction

2. Why should they be performed?

Often involves establishing a background or baseline information concerning the health of a population of animals, i.e. parasite load, nutritional status, bacterial exposure.

Anything that is considered abnormal is also known as a lesion.


Introduction2
Introduction

3. How should these tests be performed?

Hopefully, under strict guidelines using quality control and S.O.P’s with a list of written procedures! But doesn’t always happen.

Look for American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians accreditation (ADVLD).


Introduction3
Introduction

4. Who is qualified to perform these tests?

a. Two issues should be addressed here, esp. if you are the one performing the tests.

i. Moral = Can I do it? (I might actually have the skills.)

ii. Legal = Am I licensed to do it? (Can I testify in court? Am I liable if I am wrong? Rem: drugs, pharmacy, licenses, etc.

What would I need? DVM, Ph. D., affiliation with university or organization (lab), ACVP, Diplomate, AFS –pay dues for being a fish health inspector!


Introduction4
Introduction

5. What should be included in the diagnostic evaluation?

a. Animals

b. Facilities

c. Environment, i.e. water quality, feed

d. Questions for the producer/owner!

May be the most important piece of information.


Introduction5
Introduction

  • What is the final outcome of the diagnostic? What should the lab tell you?

    “Your fish have a clear case of acute multifocal necrotizing supperative hepatisis!”

    WHAT??? Translation PLEASE!!


Introduction6
Introduction

Acute multifocal necrotizing supperative hepatitis

Time location dead neutraphils inflammation

cells of the liver

“A rapid onset of dead white blood cells throughout an inflammed liver, put simply your fish have bacterial hepatitis!”

Why didn’t you just say so?


Introduction7
Introduction

6. What is the final outcome of the diagnostics?

a. Morphological Diagnosis (only?)

b. Recommendations re: husbandry?

c. Treatment recommendations?

d. Changes in facilities, environment?

e. LABS WON’T PERFORM TESTS TO DETERMINE IF FISH ARE SAFE FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.


Introduction8
Introduction

  • The clinical evaluation

    a. History

    b. Physical Examination

    c. Clinical Signs

    d. Gross lesions

    e. Cytologic evaluation

    f. Biopsy

    g. Necropsy

    h. Ancillary testing

    bacteriology

    virology

    Toxicology (water and animal samples)

    Clinical pathology (serum chemistries, hematology)j


Introduction9
Introduction

  • Sample sizes and inferences about a population based on samples.

    Must have sufficient number or diagnosis is meaningless.

    Over-interpretation

    Under-interpretation


Statistics sampling size
Statistics: Sampling Size*

*Based on assumed 5% prevalence level in the population.


Symptoms vs signs
Symptoms vs. Signs

  • Symptoms: Description of how an individual feels to a proessional health care specialist. Why doesn’t this work for aquatic critters?

  • Clinical signs: Observation of behavior of non-healthy animals.


Common clinical signs
Common Clinical Signs

  • Anorexia

  • Flashing

  • Piping

  • Lethargy

  • Erratic Swimming Patterns

  • Isolation

  • Loss of Fright Response


Lesions vs pus crud or goop
Lesions vs. Pus, Crud or Goop?

  • A lesion simply stated is…any abnormal (unhealthy) tissue.

  • Lesions may contain purulent exudate, hemorrhage, necrotic muscle, etc.


Examples of lesions
Examples of Lesions

  • Ascites

  • Exophthalmia

  • Hemorrhage and/or congestion

  • Cutaneous erosions and ulcerations

  • Gill necrosis

  • Abscesses

  • Granulomas



NO!Clinical signs and lesions suggest to you the possible disease processes. The diagnosis can only be “made” by isolating or demonstrating the presence of the pathogenic organism with a concurrent disease process.


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