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Fundamentals of Human Resource Management Eighth Edition DeCenzo and Robbins. Chapter 12 Employee Benefits. Introduction. Employee benefits Have grown in importance and variety Typically membership-based rewards offered to attract and keep employees

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Chapter 12 Employee Benefits


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Fundamentals of Human Resource Management

Eighth Edition

DeCenzo and Robbins

Chapter 12

Employee Benefits

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

introduction
Introduction

Employee benefits

  • Have grown in importance and variety
  • Typically membership-based rewards offered to attract and keep employees
  • Do not directly affect a worker’s performance, but inadequate benefits lead to employee dissatisfaction.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

introduction1
Introduction

Costs of Providing Employee Benefits

  • Benefit and service offerings add about 40% to an organization’s payroll cost.
  • Benefits become the focus of negotiations with employees when large wage and salary increases are not feasible.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

introduction2
Introduction

Contemporary Benefits Offerings

  • Benefits today reflect the diversity of the work force.
  • Challenge -- designing a benefits package which is attractive to applicants and current workers, and provides all the legally required benefits.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

legally required benefits
Legally Required Benefits

Social Security

  • Financed by equal employee and employer contributions, based on a percentage of earnings.
  • Provides income for retirees, disabled workers and surviving dependents.
  • Provides some health insurance coverage through Medicare.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

legally required benefits1
Legally Required Benefits

Unemployment Compensation

  • Funded by employers who pay combined federal and state tax imposed on taxable wage base
  • Tax varies based on organization’s unemployment experience.
  • Provides employees with some income continuation during periods of involuntary unemployment
  • Typical coverage is for 26 weeks.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

legally required benefits2
Legally Required Benefits

Workers’ Compensation

  • Paid for by the organization
  • Rates based on likelihood of accidents, past history, and the type of industry.
  • Benefits pay expenses and/or compensate for losses resulting from work-related accidents or illness, regardless of fault.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

legally required benefits3
Legally Required Benefits

Family and Medical Leave Act

  • 1993 Act requires employers with 50 or more employees to allow up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family or medical reasons.
  • Specifies record-keeping and communication requirements

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

voluntary benefits
Voluntary Benefits

Traditional health insurance

  • Typically has the fewest coverage limitations for the employee
  • Usually the most expensive

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

voluntary benefits1
Voluntary Benefits

Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)

  • Alternative benefit required by Health Maintenance Act of 1973.
  • Broad comprehensive care provided by designated service centers for fixed fees.
  • Promotes preventive care.
  • Health care choices significantly limited.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

voluntary benefits2
Voluntary Benefits

Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)

  • Member health care providers agree to provide services at a fixed fee
  • Employees are encouraged by lower rates to use member or “preferred” providers.
  • Utilization review procedures generate data on plan use.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

voluntary benefits3
Voluntary Benefits

Employer-operated coverage

  • Employers self-fund insurance programs
  • Operated under a Voluntary Employees Beneficiary Association (VEBA) to reduce costs.
  • Often hire third party to administer.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

voluntary benefits4
Voluntary Benefits

Health insurance continuation

  • The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)
    • Provides for continuation of benefits for up to three years after an employee leaves a job
    • Cost is paid by the employee

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

voluntary benefits5
Voluntary Benefits

The HIPAA Requirement

  • The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
    • Imposed on employers and health providers regulations regarding the confidentiality of employee health information.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

retirement benefits
Retirement Benefits

Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974

  • Vesting rights – right to pension benefits even if one leaves the company.
  • Enables pension rights to be portable.
  • Sets up Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)
    • claims corporate assets to cover inadequately fundedpension plans)
  • Requires Summary Plan Description (SPD)

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

retirement benefits1
Retirement Benefits

Defined Benefit Plans

  • Plan specifies the dollar benefit workers receive at retirement.
  • Usually based on some formula of years of service and average final compensation.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

retirement benefits2
Retirement Benefits

Defined Contribution Plans:

  • Employee and employer may contribute to account based on rules established for contributions
  • Amount of benefits depends on success of account investments.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

retirement benefits3
Retirement Benefits

Money Purchase Pension Plan

  • Type of defined contribution plan
  • Organization commits to depositing fixed amount of money or percentage of employee’s pay annually.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

retirement benefits4
Retirement Benefits

Profit-Sharing Plans

  • Variation of defined contribution plan.
  • Company amount contributed depends on profit level in the organization.
  • Contribution is optional, not required.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

retirement benefits5
Retirement Benefits

Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs)

  • Currently designed for lower-income workers who don’t have pension programs at work
  • Can defer taxes on amount deposited and interest earned in retirement account.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

retirement benefits6
Retirement Benefits
  • Roth IRAs:
    • Effective in 1998.
    • Eligible employees can contribute post-tax up to $3,000 annually
    • Can be withdrawn tax-free after a certain age.
  • 401(k)s:
    • Permit workers to set aside specified amount of income on tax-deferred basis
    • Employers may match employee contribution.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

paid time off
Paid Time Off

Vacation and Holiday Leave

  • Vacation time is usually related to the length of time on the job.
  • Some companies also allow personal days that can be used for any reason.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

paid time off1
Paid Time Off

Disability Insurance Programs

  • Provides salary continuation for:
    • Short-term disabilities (sick leave)
    • Long-term disabilities (coverage usually effective after 6 months).
  • Some companies provide financial incentives to employees to not use their sick leave.
  • Long-term disability plans usually replace a portion of the employee’s salary, often 60 percent.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

survivor benefits
Survivor Benefits
  • Usually are two types:
    • contributory
    • non-contributory
  • In non-contributory the employer pays the total cost of the benefit.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

survivor benefits1
Survivor Benefits

Group Term Life Insurance:

  • Benefit is usually based on one to five times annual rate of pay.

Travel insurance:

  • Life insurance for business travel-related deaths.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

survivor benefits2
Survivor Benefits

The service side of benefits

    • social and recreational events
    • employee assistance programs
    • credit unions
    • housing
    • tuition reimbursement
    • uniforms
    • company-paid transportation
    • parking
  • Employers often can provide services at no cost or at a significant reduction from the usual cost.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

an integrative perspective on employee benefits
An Integrative Perspective on Employee Benefits
  • Flexible benefits programs allow employees to choose which benefits they want and help to keep costs down.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

an integrative perspective on employee benefits1
An Integrative Perspective on Employee Benefits
  • Flexible spending accounts
    • Under Section I25 of the Internal Revenue Code employees can set aside a designated dollar amount before taxes for specified services
      • health-care premiums
      • medical expenses
      • dependent child-care
      • group legal services
    • IRS requires that accounts for different purposes be separate and that all money be spent during the year or forfeited.
    • Not subject to federal, state, and social security taxes.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins

an integrative perspective on employee benefits2
An Integrative Perspective on Employee Benefits

Modular plans:

  • Employees choose a pre-designed package of benefits from several options.

Core-Plus Options Plans

  • Employees given core coverage (e.g. medical, life, disability) with option to select other benefits.

Fundamentals of Human Resource Management 8e, DeCenzo and Robbins