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CHINA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CHINA. GEOGRAPHY. Natural Barriers served to ISOLATE China PACIFIC Ocean - East HIMALAYA / Tien Shan Mts. - West GOBI Desert - North Thick JUNGLES - South. MIDDLE KINGDOM. ETHNOCENTRISM – Because of Isolation little contact with outsiders – felt culture was superior

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geography
GEOGRAPHY

Natural Barriers served to ISOLATE China

  • PACIFIC Ocean - East
  • HIMALAYA / Tien Shan Mts. - West
  • GOBI Desert - North
  • Thick JUNGLES - South
middle kingdom
MIDDLE KINGDOM
  • ETHNOCENTRISM – Because of Isolation little contact with outsiders– felt culture was superior
  • MIDDLEKINGDOM– center of Earth
two important rivers
TWO IMPORTANT RIVERS
  • HUANG HE (YELLOW) – early civilization started here
  • YANGTZE (CHANG) – 3rd largest river in the world
early chinese dynasties
EARLY CHINESE DYNASTIES
  • China was ruled by the DYNASTIC CYCLE
  • Rulers claimed to possess the:MANDATE OF HEAVEN
  • 1st Three Chinese Dynasties were:

1. XIA

2. SHANG

3. ZHOU

qin dynasty 221 b c 206 b c
QIN DYNASTY 221 B.C. – 206 B.C.
  • SHI HUANGDI – “FIRST RULER”
  • Used LEGALISM to rule - felt highly efficient and powerful government
  • LEGALISMwas the key to social order
  • Set up AUTOCRATIC GOVERNMENT – ruler had unlimited power
  • Opposed CONFUCIANISM

(books supporting Confucius were burned)

  • Wanted to control ALL ideas of citizens
qin dynasty 221 b c 206 b c1
QIN DYNASTY 221 B.C. – 206 B. C.
  • Built network of ROADS

Tried to Standardize:

  • WRITING SYSTEM
  • LAWS
  • CURRENCY
  • WEIGHTS and MEASURES
great wall of china
GREAT WALL OF CHINA
  • In the time of SHI HUANGDI, hundreds of thousands of peasants collected, hauled, and dumped millions of tons of stone, dirt, and rubble to fill the core of the GREAT WALL of CHINA
han dynasty 206 b c a d 220
HAN DYNASTY 206 B.C. – A.D. 220
  • FOUNDER – LIU BANG
  • Most Important Ruler – WUDI

{Liu Bang’s great grandson} ruled 141B.C. - 87B.C.

  • EstablishedCIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM:

Examinations Based on teachings of CONFUCIUS determined Government Jobs

  • Expanded Empire through WAR
  • Highly Structured Society – each knew his role
han dynasty accomplishments
HAN DYNASTY Accomplishments
  • Invented PAPER – out of Wood Pulp 105 A.D.
  • Wheelbarrow, rudder (steering ships)
  • Fishing reel, collar harness for horses
  • Developed ACUPUNCTURE
silk road
SILK ROAD
  • Started during HANDynasty
  • TRADE Routes linking China with the “WEST”
  • 4000 Miles Long
  • Spread Goods, Ideas, Religion, Culture
silk road1
SILK ROAD
  • Not Only Silk -many other goods were traded, and various technologies, religions and philosophies, as well as the BUBONICplague ("Black Death")
end of han dynasty
END OF HAN DYNASTY
  • INEFFECTIVE rulers after Wudi
  • High TAXES
  • Poor Treatment of PEASANTS
  • Failure to keep up infrastructure (roads/canals)
  • Warlords Overthrow weakened Military
sui dynasty 589 618
SUI DYNASTY 589 - 618
  • Main Accomplishment – GRAND CANAL Linking Yellow / Yangtze Rivers
tang dynasty 618 907 song dynasty 960 1279
TANG DYNASTY 618 -907SONG DYNASTY 960 -1279

Characteristics:

  • EFFICIENT Government
  • Trade & Farming Flourished
  • Advances in literature, art, architecture
  • CULTURE Spreads to Japan
tang dynasty 618 907 song dynasty 960 12791
TANG DYNASTY 618 -907SONG DYNASTY 960 -1279
  • CONFUCIANIST beliefs guided gov’t & society
  • Revived CIVIL Service System
  • Strict SOCIAL order – 3 classes:

1. GENTRY – educated wealthy landowners

2. PEASANTS – most people, farmers

3. MERCHANTS – wealth came from others

Women – lower status than men

(EX: FOOT BINDING)

tang dynasty 618 907 song dynasty 960 12792
TANG DYNASTY 618 -907SONG DYNASTY 960 -1279

Many Achievements:

  • MOVABLE TYPE
  • GUNPOWDER
  • PORCELAIN
  • MAGNETIC COMPASS
  • PAPER MONEY
  • MECHANICAL CLOCK
end of song dynasty
END OF SONG DYNASTY
  • MONGOLS CONQUER SONG

establish YUAN DYNASTY (1271 – 1368)

ming dynasty 1368 1644
MING DYNASTY 1368 - 1644
  • Chinese overthrow the MONGOLSin mid-1300’s

{Self-rule restored to China}

  • New Dynasty created - MING
  • Ming China – ECONOMIC & CULTURAL revival
  • Founder/First Emperor – HONGWU
ming improvements
MING IMPROVEMENTS

AGRICULTURE – better fertilization, new crops

TRADE – repaired canals

INDUSTRY – tool making, porcelain, paper

GOVERNMENT – Civil Service System brought back, Confucianism returned

yonglo hongwu s son
YONGLO – Hongwu’s son
  • Wanted to expand Chinese Influence
  • 1405-1433: sponsored 7 Voyages of Exploration (contact w/Europeans)
  • All 7 led by: ZHENG HE
  • Established trade links with areas from Southeast Asia to eastern Africa

ZHENG HE

zheng he
ZHENG HE
  • Established Contacts with

lands outside China

Brought back EXOTIC animals

and products

zheng he1
ZHENG HE
  • Expeditions had from 40 – 300 huge ships
  • Crews of up to 27,000 men
end of exploration
END OF EXPLORATION
  • MING Emperors after death of ZHENG HE stop voyages
  • Felt they were too EXPENSIVE
  • Brought back little in return for cost
  • Zheng’s ships are BURNED
  • Building of large ships is BANNED by emperor
ming isolation
MING ISOLATION

Another reason for ending exploration:

  • China wanted to LIMIT contacts with foreigners
  • Did not trust outsiders/MISSIONARIES
  • Only the government was allowed to conduct FOREIGN trade
forbidden city
FORBIDDEN CITY
  • YONGLO moved Capital to BEIJING
  • Built Great Palace Complex: Took 14 years (1406-1420) =

“FORBIDDEN CITY”

  • Commoners/Foreigners not allowed in
end of ming dynasty
END OF MING DYNASTY

Ming ruled for over 200 years

But problems in 1600’s:

  • INEFFECTIVE RULERS
  • CORRUPT OFFICIALS
  • HIGH TAXES
  • POOR HARVESTS
  • STARVATION
  • REBELLION
qing dynasty 1644 1912
QING DYNASTY 1644-1912
  • MANCHUS overthrow the MING – set up QING DYNASTY
  • Last Dynasty of China
  • Continue policy of Isolation
  • China reaches greatest size & prosperity