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AP Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AP Psychology. 11-13-13. Finish video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4yhtjm76WU. Stages of sleep. Describe the stages of sleep & what happens in each one. Use pages 276-279, as well as the video sheet from last class, as a reference. REM Rebound.

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finish video
Finish video
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4yhtjm76WU
stages of sleep
Stages of sleep
  • Describe the stages of sleep & what happens in each one. Use pages 276-279, as well as the video sheet from last class, as a reference.
rem rebound
REM Rebound
  • Tendency to return to REM sleep more quickly if deprived of it during a sleep cycle (by waking).
biological rhythms
Biological rhythms
  • What are the four primary biological rhythms?

Annual cycles, twenty-eight-day cycles, twenty-four-hour cycles, and ninety-minute cycles.

  • What is circadian rhythm? What are the stages?

Temperature rises in morning, peaks during the day, dips in the afternoon, and drops at night.

  • Melatonin is produced by what system?
  • Jot down (using three stages) how light causes the creation of melatonin.

optic nerve -> suprachiasmatic nucleus -> pineal gland

sleep disorders
Sleep disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Narcolepsy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jTj3a2nHw8k
  • Sleep apnea
  • Night terrors
  • Read pages 287-289.
  • Write 1 paragraph evaluating what dream theory you find to be most plausible. You may also combine the theories.

Wish-fulfillment (manifest vs. latent content)


Physiological function



  • A special state resembling sleep marked by a diminished level of awareness (compared to waking consciousness).
  • A period during which people are susceptible to suggestion by another.
  • This is called hypnotic ability—some people are more likely to respond to hypnosis than others (Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale by Hilgard)
can you remember childhood events when hypnotized
Can you remember childhood events when hypnotized?
  • Called “age regression.”
  • Many people who act out age regression outperform children of that age group.
  • Memories can be created under hypnosis (pseudo-memory).
hypnosis and the will
Hypnosis and the will
  • One study showed that hypnotized people would dip their hand into “acid” and throw it or pick up a dangerous reptile.
  • However, un-hypnotized people performed the same tasks.
  • The reason? A belief in the authority figure running the study (due to safety). Is trust in authority at work in hypnosis as well?

(Milgram Experiment, anyone?)

posthypnotic suggestions
Posthypnotic Suggestions
  • After hypnosis, many subjects exhibit posthypnotic amnesia: the inability to remember events from hypnosis.
  • Suggestion during hypnosis, then, are carried out after hypnosis has ended. This can lead to some successful treatment—usually in the fields of pain-management and obesity.
how does hypnosis alleviate pain
How does hypnosis alleviate pain?
  • Dissociation: a split in consciousness, which allows a detachment between surroundings and experiences.
  • The sensation of the pain stimulus is split from the emotional suffering that defines pain.
  • Selective attention: focusing on other events to divert attention from pain.

(similar to the gate-control theory of pain)

  • Either way, stimuli are registered without reporting the expected level of pain.
evaluate hypnosis
Evaluate hypnosis
  • Read pages 294-295 & answer:
  • Are actions under hypnosis the result of social influence, divided consciousness, or an amalgamation of both? Develop an argument in a paragraph.
  • Read pages 296-310.