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Steps of the Scientific Method - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Steps of the Scientific Method. The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence. We shall take a closer look at these steps and the terminology you will need to better understand the process. Scientific Method. Observation

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the

Scientific Method

The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence.

We shall take a closer look at these steps and the terminology you will need to better understand the process.

Scientific Method terminology you will need to better understand the process.

Observation

Question/Research

Formulate a Hypothesis

Experiment

Collect and Analyze Results

Conclusion

Communicate the Results

Observation terminology you will need to better understand the process.

Sc

I

En

T

I

F

I

C

me

T

hod

Question/Research

Formulate a Hypothesis

Experiment

Collect/Analyze Results

Conclusion

Hypothesis is False

Hypothesis is True/Communicate

Steps of the terminology you will need to better understand the process.Scientific Method

• Observation: Make an observation. Observations are made with the five senses. What are your five senses?

http://www.hhmi.org/senses/senses.pdf

Stare at the bottom terminology you will need to better understand the process.

star on the left for

30 seconds.

Look Away Quickly

What do you see?

Steps of the terminology you will need to better understand the process.Scientific Method

2. Question/Research: Develop an intriguing question about your observation that can be answered through experimentation.

Research your observation in search of what is already known.

Question/Research terminology you will need to better understand the process.

My question:

I wonder what

color blind people see?

Research:

What would you research

• ???

• ???

• ???

• ???

Research-The Eye terminology you will need to better understand the process.

Research-The rods and cones terminology you will need to better understand the process.

of the retina

Research-Color Vision terminology you will need to better understand the process.

• With Additive color shades are created by combining different quantities of the primary colors .

• Combination of the primary colors appears white.

• The primary colors are red, green and blue.

• The complementary colors are cyan, and magenta and yellow.

Define : complementary colors

Research-Activation of Cones terminology you will need to better understand the process.

Can a red-green

color blind person

see any color?

What types of color

blindness are there?

Do you remember the next step? terminology you will need to better understand the process.

Steps of the terminology you will need to better understand the process.Scientific Method

3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question about your observation.

What are your hypotheses with regard to viewing the flag?

What is the Null Hypothesis?

Example: terminology you will need to better understand the process.

Null: If a person is red-green color blind, then…………………………..

Ha: If a person is red-green color blind, then ………………………………...

Hb: If a person is red-green color blind, then ………………………………………..

Create three hypotheses terminology you will need to better understand the process.

• I wonder if adding the plant hormone, abscisic acid, will make my cactus grow faster?

• What will you measure?

• What are the three hypotheses?

• If……then…….

Steps of the terminology you will need to better understand the process.Scientific Method

4. Experiment: Develop and follow a controlled procedure.

Include a detailed materials list.

The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).

Steps of the terminology you will need to better understand the process.Scientific Method

5. Collect and Analyze Results:

Confirm the results by retesting.

Present the data using tables, graphs, and photographs.

Perform statistical analysis.

Data Mine!

Steps of the terminology you will need to better understand the process.Scientific Method

6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis and attempts to explain it.

Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.

Steps of the terminology you will need to better understand the process.Scientific Method

7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience.

Expect questions from the audience.

Plan your test of color vision

Think you can name all seven steps? terminology you will need to better understand the process.

Communicate the Results

Formulate a Hypothesis

Question/Research

Experiment

Observation

Conclusion

Collect and Analyze Results

Let’s put our knowledge of the Scientific Method to a realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.

Problem/Question realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.

John watches his grandmother bake bread. He ask his grandmother what makes the bread rise.

She explains that yeast release a gas as it metabolizes the sugar.

Problem/Question realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.

John wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size (dimensions) of the bread loaf?

Caution! realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.

Be careful how you use effect and affect.

Effect is usually a noun and affect, a verb.

“ The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.”

“How does sugar affect the rising of bread?”

Observation/Research realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.

What would you research?

John researches the areas of baking and fermentation and tries to come up with a way to test his hypothesis.

He keeps all of his information on this topic in a journal.

John talks with his teacher and she gives him a realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand. Experimental Design Diagram to help him set up his investigation.

Experimental Design Template realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.

Experimental Design:

What is the effect of _______________________________________ (Independent Variable) on __________________________________________________________ Dependent Variable)?

If _____________________________________ (planned change in independent variable) then ____________________________________________ expected change in dependent variable).

Independent Variable: ___________________________________________________________

How will you measure the Independent Variable? Level/Units of Independent Variable (dose ): ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Dependent Variable: _____________________________________________________________

How will you measure the Dependent Variable? Level/Units of Dependent Variable (response): ______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Identify the control group?

What will you keep the same between the groups? (at least five)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Formulate a Hypothesis realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.

After talking with his teacher and conducting further research, he comes up with a hypothesis.

“If increasing amounts of sugar are added, then the dimensions of the bread will increase in a dose-response fashion.”

Hypothesis realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.

The hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

Note: These variables will be defined in the next few slides.

Independent Variable dependent variables?

The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter.

John is going to use 25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his experiment.

Dependent Variable dependent variables?

The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable.

In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread (l x w x h).

Experiment dependent variables?

His teacher helps him come up with a procedureand list of needed materials.

She discusses with John how to determine the control group.

Control Group dependent variables?

In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison.

The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.

Control Group dependent variables?

The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested.

Experiments should have a control group.

Control Group dependent variables?

Because his grandmother always used 50g. of sugar in her recipe, John is going to use that amount in his control group.

Constants dependent variables?

John’s teacher reminds him to keep all other factors the same so that any observed changes in the bread can be attributed to the variation in the amount of sugar.

Constants dependent variables?

The constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.

Constants dependent variables?

They might include:

Other ingredients to the bread recipe (amount of yeast), oven used, rise time, brand of ingredients, cooking time, type of pan used, air temperature and humidity where the bread was rising, oven temperature, age of the yeast…

Experiment dependent variables?

John writes out his procedure for his experiment along with a materials list in his journal. He has both of these checked by his teacher where she checks for any safety concerns.

Trials dependent variables?

Trials refer to replicate groups that are exposed to the same conditions in an experiment.

John is going to test each sugar variable 3 times.

Collect and Analyze Results dependent variables?

John comes up with a table he can use to record his data.

John gets all his materials together and carries out his experiment.

Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm dependent variables?3

Size of Bread Loaf (cm3)

Trials

Control group

Collect and Analyze Results dependent variables?

John examines the data, uses statistics and notices that his control worked the best in this experiment, but not significantly better than 100g of sugar.

Experiment dependent variables?

Once again, John gathers his materials and carries out his experiment.

Here are the results.

Conclusion dependent variables?

John rejects his hypothesis, but decides to re-test using sugar amounts between 50g. and 100g. What is his new hypothesis? Think!!!!

Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm dependent variables?3

Size of Bread Loaf (cm3)

Trials

Control group

Conclusion dependent variables?

John finds that 70g. of sugar produces the largest loaf.

Was his new hypothesis is accepted or rejected?

Communicate the Results dependent variables?

John tells his grandmother about his findings and prepares to present his project in Science class.

Say the colors out loud dependent variables?

Observe your dependent variables?

world and come

up with a question

to answer using the

Scientific Method!

Disc Diffusion MIC/MBC dependent variables?

http://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu/Microbiology/Flash/MICMBC.htm

Repeat dependent variables?