The State, the Unions, and the Fairer Sex: The Twentieth Century American Economy
Today’s Plan • Setting the Stage • The New Century • The Roaring ’20s • A New Deal • Cold War Prosperity • The Second Shift • Malaise and Morning • Legacy
Our Focus • The Government • Including (especially) the legal regime • Labor • Organized and otherwise • Women • Their role in the economy
The Law • Autonomous Individuals • Liberty of Contract • So no regulation • Freedom of Trade • So no outside interference • Court injunctions against picketing, etc. • The Lochner Era
The Plight of (Southern) Farmers Sharecropping Falling (and unstable) cotton prices Railroad and interest rates Anti-Trust Law Railroad Reg.
Labor and Women The Pullman Strike Eugene V. Debs Retrenchment Labor: Samuel Gompers American Federation of Labor (AFL) Suffrage: Carrie Chapman Catt National American Woman Suffrage Association
James Duval Phelan • Mayor of San Francisco • 1901 Challenges • Carnegie Gift • San Francisco Waterfront Strike
Urban Unrest Los Angeles Times Bombing (1910) • 20 Dead, 17 Injured
Industrial Disasters • Triangle Fire (1911) • Triangle Shirtwaist Company • 146 Dead
Progressive Constitution • 16th Amendment: Income Tax • 19th Amendment: Women’s Suffrage • Maternalist Welfare v. Liberty of Contract
Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt • “Trust-Buster” • Railroad Regulation • Pure Food and Drug Act, Meat Inspection Act • New Nationalism
Eugene V. Debs “While there is a lower class, I am in it,… while there is a soul in prison, I am not free.” • Reform Socialism • Gov’t Control of RR, Banks • Unemployment & Min. Wage • Education • Populist & Labor Communities
Wilson’s Economic Policy • Lower Tarriff, Gov’t Loans for Farmers • Protecting unions from anti-trust laws • New Freedom
Wilson’s Big Government • WWI • Espionage and Sedition Acts • Debs in jail, again • Red Scare • Crippling Labor
“Silent Cal” Coolidge“The chief business of the American people is business” • Return to “normalcy” • Welfare Capitalism • The American Plan
ERA Debate Document 1 • What strikes you? • What surprises you? • What puzzles you? • What connections do you see to other historical events/documents?
First New Deal Emergency Banking Act Glass-Steagall Act “Alphabet Soup” of Keynesian Economics FDIC, NRA, CCC, TVA, AAA, FHA, SEC, etc.
Second New Deal Economic Security Wagner Act Social Security Act Holes in the Safety Net Domestic & Agricultural Workers Southern Veto
The Supreme Court Objects • Interstate Commerce Clause (A1,S8,C3) • “To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;” • Court Fight/Packing • Economic Recovery/Security trumps Liberty of Contract • In economic rights, class trumps individual
The New Deal and the Unions • Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) • United Auto Workers (UAW) • National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) • “The President Wants You to Organize!”
Modern Liberalism Balancing Cultural Pluralism/Civil Liberties Socially Conscious State/Economic Planning
Global U.S. Economy Military Keynesianism Dollar as the Global Benchmark Currency Economic Dominance Replaced Colonial Dominance
“Godless Communism” An offense to America’s religious ideals As a “Christian Nation” The second of the Four Freedoms A challenge to Free Enterprise “socialized”
1950s Consensus • Modern Republicanism • Moderated expansion of New Deal • Consensus • Individualism • Private Property • Defense Spending
The Kitchen Debate • American Exhibition in Moscow • Richard Nixon & Nikita Khrushchev • Consumer Freedom and the People’s Capitalism
Suburbanization • Federal Housing Administration • G.I. Bill • Defense Spending • Freeway
Family • Women/Housewives • Cold War Weapon • Center of: • Consumption • Leisure • Sexual Pleasure
Turning the Tide on Labor • Post-WWII Unionism • 1955 AFL-CIO Merger • Slowing growth from 1950-1970 • Taft-Hartley • Right-to-Work movement
Ronald Reagan • New Deal Democrat • Actor/Spokesperson • FDR, Army, Truman • Union Leader • SAG • Liberal Anti-Communist • G.E. Spokesman • Value of business • Limited government, anti-tax message
Young Americans for Freedom Document 2 • What strikes you? • What surprises you? • What puzzles you? • What connections do you see to other historical events/documents?
The Great Society Speech at Howard University Medicaid & Medicare Cabinet-Level Positions The War on Poverty Food Stamps & Job Training
Second Wave Feminism • Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique • Equal Pay Act • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)