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  1. Remember to check to see if we have school tomorrow! Where to look:,, and the If Boston Public Schools are closed, we are closed

  2. Foundations of Psychology Intro to Psychology Class #3 2/4/14

  3. Sigmund Freud • Father of psychoanalysis – “talk therapy” • Most famous psychologist ever; profound influence on 20th and 21st century psychology

  4. Sigmund Freud • Biography • Born 1856 • Lived most of his life in Vienna, Austria • Escaped to London at the start of WWII • Died 1939 (83 years old) • Very well known in his time: a celebrity recognized everywhere he went • Highly productive for many years • Was nominated for Nobel Prizes in both Medicine & Literature

  5. Sigmund Freud • Very ambitious to the cause of psychoanalysis • Disliked both personally & professionally by many • Why professionally? • Labeled as a “sexual renegade” • Out to destroy the most sacred notions of Christianity • Made claims about people that many of us would rather not know about ourselves

  6. Sigmund Freud What the heck was he saying??? • Phallic symbols: objects are subconsciously penile representations

  7. Sigmund Freud • Penis Envy • A developmental state all females experience • Discover they don’t have a penis, infer they have been castrated • Feel great love toward your father because he has a penis (penis substitute) • Reject your mother because she has no penis & is unworthy • This all comes together to shape your psychosexual development

  8. Freud & the Unconscious • Theory of Unconscious Motivation • Freud is most famous for this theory • Believed the mind was like an iceberg • You can only see a small part • The part of the mind we can’t see is The Unconscious

  9. The Unconscious • Rejects the claim you know what you’re doing • Could apply to ANYTHING • Unpleasant & frightening to think of the unconscious as having such an active role in your life & decisions, yet we have no control over it or idea it’s happening • Other examples of unconscious

  10. The Unconscious Divisions of the Unconscious Mind • Id • Present at birth. The animal part of the self. • Is incredibly stupid: WANT WANTWANT! • Pleasure Principle: wants pleasure & wants it now

  11. The Unconscious Divisions of the Unconscious Mind • Ego • aka “The Self” • Reality Principle: How to make your way through the world satisfying or giving up on your pleasures • Emergence of ego symbolizes emergence of consciousness • Constantly battling the Id and Superego

  12. The Unconscious Divisions of the Unconscious Mind • Superego • Internalized rules of parents and society • Is the angel on your shoulder telling you when things are wrong • Also incredibly stupid: YOU SHOULD BE ASHAMED OF YOURSELF

  13. Psychosexual Stages • Everyone goes through them • Fixation – attempt to achieve pleasure as an adult in ways that are similar/equivalent to how it was achieved in these stages • Each stage associated with a particular erogenous zone

  14. Psychosexual Stages • Oral Stage (birth – 1 year) • Mouth = pleasure • Premature weaning could lead to problems in personality development • An “oral” person: • Might eat too much, chew gum constantly, chew on pens • Achieves satisfaction denied to them early through their mouth (oral fixation)

  15. Psychosexual Stages • Anal Stage (1 – 3 years) • Anus is associated with pleasure • Literally: unwilling to part with your own feces • Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled properly • Anal retentive behaviors • Clean, compulsive, stingy

  16. Psychosexual Stages • Phallic Stage (3 – 5 years) • Focus of pleasure shifts to the genitals • Oedipus or Electra Complex can happen here • Fixation: Excessive masculinity in males, need for domination or attention in females • What is the Oedipus Complex?

  17. Psychosexual Stages • Oedipus Complex: • named for a mythical king who killed his father & married his mother. • Happens to all men, according to Freud • I love Mom! She’s sweet & nice! • Problem: Dad’s in the way • Kill Dad! Mom for me only! • Dad is mad (he’s on to me!) • What’s the worst thing imaginable for punishment? • Castration. Dad’s gonna castrate ME • Dad wins. No more thinking of sex for many years

  18. Psychosexual Stages • Latency Stage (5 – puberty) • Sexuality is repressed after Oedipus Complex • Children begin to participate in hobbies, school, same-sex friendships

  19. Psychosexual Stages • Genital Stage (puberty – on) • Healthy adult phase • Sexual feelings reemerge and are directed towards others • Healthy adults find pleasure in love & work; fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages • But we’re not out of the woods just yet…

  20. Psychosexual Stages • Genital Stage, continued • Id, Ego, Superego: still fighting it out for control • Superego: Do not THINK or DO bad things! • Id sending weird desires (kill! sex!) Superego says NO! • All of this is repressed & never makes it to consciousness • May express through dreams, slips of the tongue • Exceptional cases: clinical symptoms

  21. Defense Mechanisms • Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety & defend ourselves from the horrible parts of ourselves • Certain things we’d rather not know. Ways to hide them: • Sublimation: focus energies to socially allowable activities • Displacement: redirection of shameful thoughts to more appropriate targets

  22. Defense Mechanisms • Projection: instead of owning unacceptable impulses, they’re projected on to others • Rationalization: Give a more socially acceptable explanation to a bad/immoral thing • Regression: Returning to an earlier stage of development

  23. Hysteria • Hysteria: the experiences we have when our defense mechanisms are trying to keep emotionally charged memories locked away • Physical manifestations of hysteria: • Panics attacks, gaps in memory, “blindness”, “deafness”, trembling

  24. Hysteria • Freud initially used hypnosis with patients to get over the resistance & explore conflicts • Switched to Freudian analysis: patient lies on couch and talks, can’t see therapist. • Catharsis: Remembering the memories and WHY they were hidden away. RELIEF!

  25. More Freud • Dreams • Manifest content: What you experience in your dream • Latent content: The hidden implication of the dream • All dreams are wish fulfillment, even forbidden wishes • Dreams have symbolism • Bound 2: what the heck does it mean???

  26. Freud & Modern Psychology • Language understanding • Chewing gum, tying your shoelaces, driving • Likes & Dislikes Many of the particulars of Freud have been rejected, but he is also a victim of his own success.

  27. Homework! • Homework #3 – handout • Due 2/6 at the start of class • Reminder on late work policy: • Any homework assigned when a student is absent is due at the next class meeting. • Homework not turned in due to absence must be turned in at the next class meeting or at Advisory during the same week as the absence. No late homework will be accepted after Advisory. • All late assignments will be eligible for partial credit only. • It is the student’s responsibility to contact their teacher or check Weebly for any work missed due to absence.