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METHODS OF TRAINING. G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION. CONTINUOUS TRAINING. CONTINUOUS training involves LONG, SLOW, DISTANCE exercise. It is performed at a CONSTANT RATE WITHOUT REST.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

METHODS OF

TRAINING

G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION

slide3

CONTINUOUS TRAINING

  • CONTINUOUStraining involves LONG, SLOW, DISTANCE exercise.
  • It is performed at a CONSTANT RATE WITHOUT REST.
  • Training at first should be at 60% of maximum heart rate, increasing to 75-80% of maximum heart rate (progression)
  • If performed correctly CONTINUOUS training improves CARDIOVASCULAR and MUSCULAR STAMINA.
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FARTLEK is a SWEDISH

word meaning SPEEDPLAY.

In this form of training the INTENSITY and TYPE of exercise are varied.

This is done by changing the PACE, TERRAIN and STYLE of training.

This form of running gives an athlete a lot of training over far GREATER than their COMPETITIVEdistance.

FARTLEK TRAINING

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10-15 minutes jogging or easy running

1 mile run at a steady pace

5 minute rapid walk

10 minute jog with 5 sprints interspersed each over a distance of 75-100 metres

Hard uphill run for 150-200 metres

Jog 1 mile with frequent 5-10 metre bursts

10 minute rapid walk

1-5 sprints over a distance of 150 metres

TYPICAL PROGRAMME 1

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TYPICAL PROGRAMME 2

The distance between the cones tells you how much work / effort you need to put into that section.

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INTERVAL TRAINING

hThis is an ALTERNATE FAST AND SLOWtraining schedule performed over MEASURED distances.

tThe FAST SECTIONS involve periods of INTENSE work

TThe SLOW OR RECOVERY PERIODS involve either REST OR VERY LIGHT EXERCISE in which the oxygen debt built up during the fast phase can be repaid.

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INTERVAL TRAINING

Interval training can be planned to improve

AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC fitness or a mixture

of the two depending on:-

  • The speed or intensity of the fast intervals
  • The length of fast intervals
  • The number of fast intervals
  • The length of the recovery periods
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TYPICAL PROGRAMMES

  • 10 X 80m (pace = 75% of max)with 30 seconds static recovery.
  • 6 X 400m (pace = 80% of max) with 200m jog recovery.
  • LUNG BUSTING SESSIONS:

INSUFFICIENT RECOVERY TIME

MAX EFFORT

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CROSS TRAINING

  • This is a MIXTURE OF TRAINING often used to BREAK UP THE BOREDOM of a single type of training.
  • It can help to REDUCE STRESSES on the body from a single training regime e.g.continual pounding to the joints when road running.
  • It can be used to produce the SAME EFFECTS as a single type of training by using different types of work/ play.
  • This type of training is ADAPTABLE. It can be altered to suit the needs of the individual because it is a mixture of different types of training.
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CIRCUIT TRAINING

  • CIRCUIT training involves a series of EXERCISES OR ACTIVITIES.
  • Each one takes place at a different STATION.
  • Each station involves an exercise aimed at a SPECIFIC MUSCLE GROUP in the body.
  • The exercises are arranged so that:
      • MUSCLE GROUPS ALTERNATE BETWEEN WORK AND RECOVERY

2. OPPOSING MUSCLE GROUPS ARE WORKED FOR BALANCED STRENGTH DISTRIBUTION

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CIRCUIT TRAINING

  • The aim of CIRCUIT training is to improve LOCAL MUSCULAR ENDURANCE, CARDIOVASCULAR AND REPIRATORY FITNESS.
  • Work / rest intervals can be altered depending on the fitness objective. (SPECIFICITY).

REPITITIONS AND SETS

Circuits can be organised on the

Basis of TIME or REPITION. They

may include REST INTERVALS or

they could be NON-STOP.

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STRENGTH TRAINING

STRENGTH can be defined as the ability of a muscle or muscle group to apply force and, overcome resistance.

BUT there are DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRENGTH.

The strength of a tug-of-war competitor is of a different sort to the high jumper or the cyclist.

Researchers have called these different displays of strength, STATIC, EXPLOSIVE and DYNAMIC.

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STATIC STRENGTH

Static strength is theMAXIMUM FORCEthat can be applied by a muscle group to an IMMOVABLEOBJECT.

The length of the muscle remains the same = ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION

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EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH

EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH or POWER is a measure of the MAXIMUMENERGY used in one EXPLOSIVEACT.

  • EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH can be seen clearly in activities such as THROWING and JUMPING
  • This is when athletes attempt to project themselves or an object as FAR and as FAST as possible.
  • LEG strength or power can be MEASURED either by a VERTICALLEAP or STANDINGBROARD JUMP.
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DYNAMIC STRENGTH

DYNAMIC STRENGTH is the ability of the muscles to MOVE or SUPPORT the body mass CONTINUOUSLY over an extended period of TIME.

  • Most sportsmen and sportswoman require ALL THREE types of strength, although obviously particular types of strength are vital for some sports:
  • SHOT PUTTERS NEED EXPLOSIVE
  • STRENGTH
  • ROWERS NEED DYNAMIC STRENGTH
  • TUG-O-WAR COMPETITORS NEED STATIC
  • AS WELL AS DYNAMIC STRENGTH.
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POWER

POWER = SPEED X STRENGTH

RESISTANCE RUNNING

HILL RUNNING

Power can be developed by:-

PLYOMETRICS

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POWER EXAMPLE

DISCUS THROWER

SPEED + STRENGTH

POWER