Apparel Construction Skills Apparel Development 2 Objective 3.02
Standard Sewing Machine Used For: • Regular stitching • Machine basting • Reinforcement stitching
Serger • A Specialized type of sewing machine that can stitch, trim, and finish all in one simple step. • Sometimes called “Overlock” or “flatlock” ** machine Can be used to decorate an edge
Serging a Satin Pillow Sham? • No adjustments necessary
Serging Lightweight Fabrics? • Decrease the pressure regulator** • (Differential feed) • Making a tissue holder**
Embroidery Machine Used for: • Monogramming • Personalizing • Special Designs
Skipped Stitches • Old dull needle – replace it • Wrong size needle • Tension too tight
Tension Problems: • Too loose: top thread shows through the bottom of the fabric • Too tight: bottom thread shows on the top
Tension • Heavier the thread – looser the tension • To balance the bottom and bottom stitches, adjust the tension whenever you change fabrics**
Stitch Length • Basting, Standard, Re-inforced • Heavy fabric** feeding unevenly? Increase the stitch length
Machine Needles • Hold the upper thread on the sewing machine • many types and sizes • replace when it becomes dull, bent, or rough • Larger the number, larger the needle
Machine Needles • **Change needle based on type of fabric • **Ball point needle – sharp enough for woven fabric, rounded for knits
Presser Feet • Holds fabric against the feed dogs which moves the fabric under needle • Many different types
Standard Presser Foot • Used for basic sewing
Zipper Foot • Used for applying zippers and sewing close to bulky edges
Automatic Button Hole Foot • Place button in slot • Same size button hole each time • Always practice first • Don’t forget – please re-set • Follow instruction manual
Teflon Foot / Walking Foot • **Allows leather to feed smoothly while sewing • Glides over leather
Blind Hem Foot • An invisible machine worked hem • **appropriate for the top finished edge of a canvas bag • Used for JROTC pants • Follow instruction manual
Clear Presser Foot – “B” • Used for making a 4-step button hole • Used for sewing in sew-thru buttons
Feed Pressure Regulator • Adjusts the amount of pressure of the presser foot • On the left side of our machine • Thick fabric vs. light fabric (1) • Set at 3 for regular sewing
Stitches • Choose the right one for the job • Standard = 10-12 stitches per inch • Basting (long stitch) = 6 per inch • Reinforced (short + strong) = 15-20
Sewing Corners • At the corner, leave needle in fabric, raise presser foot • Spin the fabric, lower presser foot • Corner – can take a few diagonal stitches • Reinforcing – additional stitches on both sides of corner
Sewing Curves • Stitch slowly, and even speed • If adjusting fabric, leave needle down
Dressmaker Shears • allows fabric to lie flat on the table as you cut. • Blades are usually 7 to 8 inches in length. • Also know as Bent-handled shears.
Scissors • These scissors have small round handles. • Blades are 4 to 6 inches in length (the blades are different in widths). • Use the to trim seams, clip curves, and cut into corners.
Pinking Shears • With these shears, you can finish a seam edge or other raw edge on firmly woven fabric. • The zigzag design helps to prevent raveling.
Embroidery Scissors • 3 to 4 inches in length, with very pointed blades. • Use for cutting buttonholes & Trimming close to the embroidery hoop.***
Rotary cutter • Looks like a pizza cutter. • Can make straight clean cuts through multiple layers of fabric. Such as a rectangle*** • Cutter must be used with a mat.
Thread Clipper (snips) • This tool has spring-action blades for clipping thread ends or stitches.
Seam Ripper • Can remove stitches with the blades on one end of this pen-shaped gadget. • Be careful not to cut the fabric.
Electric Straight Knife Cutting Machine • Are manipulated by hand along outlines of the pattern pieces of the marker. • Can cut 100 layers of fabric at a time.
Laser Cutter • A device that generates an intense, powerful beam of light. • Cut one garment a piece at a time. • They’re economical because they fast and accurate.
Pressing: Equipment Press Cloth- A press cloth is a layer of fabric placed between the fabric and the iron to protect the fabric from scorching or shining.
Tailor’s Ham- is convenient for shaping the fabric when making dressmaker suits or coat.
Sleeve Board-A sleeve board is a small ironing board that is narrow enough to fit into a sleeve.
Seam Roll-A seam roll is a two-sided cylinder, one side covered with wool and the other with cotton. For ironing narrow areas
Point Presser and Pounding Block- **narrow wooden surface with triangle shaped end. For pressing narrow, hard to reach seams of collars; belts; cuffs; corners; points, etc.A clapper/pounding block is used to flatten a seam, pleat, dart, lapel, buttonhole, etc.
Needle Board- A board that holds needles in a loom. Used for pressing pile fabrics (use with a press cloth
Ironing Board-A long, narrow padded board, often with collapsible supporting legs, used as a working surface for ironing.
Steam Iron-A metal appliance with a handle and a weighted flat bottom, used when heated to press wrinkles from fabric. *Make sure to keep iron clean!
Pressing: Techniques • Specialized Fabrics- When pressing pile fabrics, press on the wrong side of the fabric, so the iron’s impression will not show on the fabric. • Placing these fabrics right side down on a needle board will help preserve texture. CORDUROY VELVET
Use of Pressing Equipment • The iron is the most important pressing tool. • Avoid pressing over pins, sippers, and other metal objects that will scratch the bottom of the iron.
Types of Seams • Plain seams should be serged and trimmed, or stitched with a seam allowance of 5/8 of an inch. • Perfect for beginner projects from pillows to pants.
Types of Seams • AFlat-felledseam is self-enclosed and requires no additional seam finishing technique. • Used where durability is needed or a tailored appearance is desired. Good for sewing denim Jeans.
Types of Seams • Welt seams give the garment a tailored look. Used on corduroy ** • They can be used as a decorative accent.
Types of Seams • A Double-Stitched is mostly used for sheer fabrics or lightweight knits. • Used on things such as sheer fabrics and lightweight knits.
A French seam is a durable self enclosed seam that is used to conceal seam allowances. • Used to prevent raveling on lightweight fabric such as satin and cotton batiste. ***