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Apparel Construction Skills

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  1. Apparel Construction Skills Apparel Development 2 Objective 3.02

  2. Standard Sewing Machine Used For: • Regular stitching • Machine basting • Reinforcement stitching

  3. Serger • A Specialized type of sewing machine that can stitch, trim, and finish all in one simple step. • Sometimes called “Overlock” or “flatlock” ** machine Can be used to decorate an edge

  4. Serging a Satin Pillow Sham? • No adjustments necessary 

  5. Serging Lightweight Fabrics? • Decrease the pressure regulator** • (Differential feed) • Making a tissue holder**

  6. Embroidery Machine Used for: • Monogramming • Personalizing • Special Designs

  7. Problems and Solutions

  8. Skipped Stitches • Old dull needle – replace it • Wrong size needle • Tension too tight

  9. Tension Problems: • Too loose: top thread shows through the bottom of the fabric • Too tight: bottom thread shows on the top

  10. Tension • Heavier the thread – looser the tension • To balance the bottom and bottom stitches, adjust the tension whenever you change fabrics**

  11. Stitch Length • Basting, Standard, Re-inforced • Heavy fabric** feeding unevenly? Increase the stitch length

  12. Machine Needles • Hold the upper thread on the sewing machine • many types and sizes • replace when it becomes dull, bent, or rough • Larger the number, larger the needle

  13. Machine Needles • **Change needle based on type of fabric • **Ball point needle – sharp enough for woven fabric, rounded for knits

  14. Presser Feet • Holds fabric against the feed dogs which moves the fabric under needle • Many different types

  15. Standard Presser Foot • Used for basic sewing

  16. Zipper Foot • Used for applying zippers and sewing close to bulky edges

  17. Automatic Button Hole Foot • Place button in slot • Same size button hole each time • Always practice first • Don’t forget – please re-set • Follow instruction manual

  18. Teflon Foot / Walking Foot • **Allows leather to feed smoothly while sewing • Glides over leather

  19. Blind Hem Foot • An invisible machine worked hem • **appropriate for the top finished edge of a canvas bag • Used for JROTC pants • Follow instruction manual

  20. Clear Presser Foot – “B” • Used for making a 4-step button hole • Used for sewing in sew-thru buttons

  21. Feed Pressure Regulator • Adjusts the amount of pressure of the presser foot • On the left side of our machine • Thick fabric vs. light fabric (1) • Set at 3 for regular sewing

  22. Stitches • Choose the right one for the job • Standard = 10-12 stitches per inch • Basting (long stitch) = 6 per inch • Reinforced (short + strong) = 15-20

  23. Sewing Corners • At the corner, leave needle in fabric, raise presser foot • Spin the fabric, lower presser foot • Corner – can take a few diagonal stitches • Reinforcing – additional stitches on both sides of corner

  24. Sewing Curves • Stitch slowly, and even speed • If adjusting fabric, leave needle down

  25. Dressmaker Shears • allows fabric to lie flat on the table as you cut. • Blades are usually 7 to 8 inches in length. • Also know as Bent-handled shears.

  26. Scissors • These scissors have small round handles. • Blades are 4 to 6 inches in length (the blades are different in widths). • Use the to trim seams, clip curves, and cut into corners.

  27. Pinking Shears • With these shears, you can finish a seam edge or other raw edge on firmly woven fabric. • The zigzag design helps to prevent raveling.

  28. Embroidery Scissors • 3 to 4 inches in length, with very pointed blades. • Use for cutting buttonholes & Trimming close to the embroidery hoop.***

  29. Rotary cutter • Looks like a pizza cutter. • Can make straight clean cuts through multiple layers of fabric. Such as a rectangle*** • Cutter must be used with a mat.

  30. Thread Clipper (snips) • This tool has spring-action blades for clipping thread ends or stitches.

  31. Seam Ripper • Can remove stitches with the blades on one end of this pen-shaped gadget. • Be careful not to cut the fabric.

  32. Industrial Equipment

  33. Electric Straight Knife Cutting Machine • Are manipulated by hand along outlines of the pattern pieces of the marker. • Can cut 100 layers of fabric at a time.

  34. Laser Cutter • A device that generates an intense, powerful beam of light. • Cut one garment a piece at a time. • They’re economical because they fast and accurate.

  35. Laser Cutter examples

  36. Pressing: Equipment Press Cloth- A press cloth is a layer of fabric placed between the fabric and the iron to protect the fabric from scorching or shining.

  37. Tailor’s Ham- is convenient for shaping the fabric when making dressmaker suits or coat.

  38. Sleeve Board-A sleeve board is a small ironing board that is narrow enough to fit into a sleeve.

  39. Seam Roll-A seam roll is a two-sided cylinder, one side covered with wool and the other with cotton. For ironing narrow areas

  40. Point Presser and Pounding Block- **narrow wooden surface with triangle shaped end. For pressing narrow, hard to reach seams of collars; belts; cuffs; corners; points, etc.A clapper/pounding block is used to flatten a seam, pleat, dart, lapel, buttonhole, etc.

  41. Needle Board- A board that holds needles in a loom. Used for pressing pile fabrics (use with a press cloth

  42. Ironing Board-A long, narrow padded board, often with collapsible supporting legs, used as a working surface for ironing.

  43. Steam Iron-A metal appliance with a handle and a weighted flat bottom, used when heated to press wrinkles from fabric. *Make sure to keep iron clean!

  44. Pressing: Techniques • Specialized Fabrics- When pressing pile fabrics, press on the wrong side of the fabric, so the iron’s impression will not show on the fabric. • Placing these fabrics right side down on a needle board will help preserve texture. CORDUROY VELVET

  45. Use of Pressing Equipment • The iron is the most important pressing tool. • Avoid pressing over pins, sippers, and other metal objects that will scratch the bottom of the iron.

  46. Types of Seams • Plain seams should be serged and trimmed, or stitched with a seam allowance of 5/8 of an inch. • Perfect for beginner projects from pillows to pants.

  47. Types of Seams • AFlat-felledseam is self-enclosed and requires no additional seam finishing technique. • Used where durability is needed or a tailored appearance is desired. Good for sewing denim Jeans.

  48. Types of Seams • Welt seams give the garment a tailored look. Used on corduroy ** • They can be used as a decorative accent.

  49. Types of Seams • A Double-Stitched is mostly used for sheer fabrics or lightweight knits. • Used on things such as sheer fabrics and lightweight knits.

  50. A French seam is a durable self enclosed seam that is used to conceal seam allowances. • Used to prevent raveling on lightweight fabric such as satin and cotton batiste. ***