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300 - 1500

Medieval Europe. 300 - 1500. 1. Kingdoms and Christianity – 300 – 1250 2. The Early Middle Ages – 800 – 1215 3. The High Middle Ages – 1000 – 1500. Mr. Schenk. 300 - 1500. The Early Middle Ages. 800 - 1215. 1. Charlemagne’s Empire 2. New Invaders

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300 - 1500

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  1. Medieval Europe 300 - 1500 • 1. Kingdoms and Christianity – 300 – 1250 • 2. The Early Middle Ages – 800 – 1215 • 3. The High Middle Ages – 1000 – 1500 Mr. Schenk

  2. 300 - 1500 The Early Middle Ages • 800 - 1215 • 1. Charlemagne’s Empire • 2. New Invaders • 3. The Feudal and Manorial Systems • 4. The Growth of Monarchies • 5. Power of the Church • At the outset of the early Middle Ages, western Europe was a land without an empire • New forms of community took hold • Christianity spread throughout western Europe • Strong, new political systems also arose, uniting much of Europe

  3. 1. Charlemagne’s Empire 300 - 1500 • With the , Europe had entered into a period of political, social, and economic decline. • Small kingdoms competed to control the lands once under Rome’s central authority • Among these kingdoms, were the Franks

  4. Building an Empire 300 - 1500 • By the 800’s, the Franks ruled much of western and central Europe • Leaders most influential in the successes of the Franks belonged to one family – the Carolingians • The family of • Grandfather – Charles Martel – served as a political advisor to the king • His son – Pippin III – the first king of the Carolingians • He passed to his son Charles

  5. 300 - 1500 Charlemagne’s Rise to Power • Pope Leo III, in 774, called on him to defend his Papal States against a group known as the Lombards • Charlemagne and the Franks swept into Italy and defeated the raiders • Charles the Great became king of the Romans • This medieval manuscript shows Pope Leo IIIcrowning Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans

  6. Charlemagne’s Rule 300 - 1500 • Charlemagne had tremendous power as emperor • (however to large to rule) • Permanent capital at Aachen (now Germany) Charlemagne’s home palace • – officials who ruled under him in exchange for large tracts of land- oversaw his empire

  7. A New Society 300 - 1500 • The Carolingian Renaissance • Politics – unified Europe for the first time since the fall of Rome • Education – built schools and preserved ancient writings • Religion – spread Christianity among conquered people • Law – developed a written legal code

  8. 300 - 1500 Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses:Treaty of Verdun, 843 • With Charlemagne’s death in 814, the empire lost its center • Once again disunity spread throughout Europe • His grandsons divide the empire into three parts, a western, a middle, and a eastern kingdom • to make matters worse – invaders – Vikings!

  9. The death of Charlemagne marked the ending of peace in Western Europe The Vikings, Magyars, and the Muslims all focused on their conquests of Europe Perhaps the most fierce were the warriors from Denmark known as the Vikings 300 - 1500 2. New Invaders • “The number of ships grow: the endless stream of Vikings never cease to increase. Everywhere the Christians are victims of massacres, burnings, plunderings; the Vikings conquer all in their path, and no one resists them.” • A Monk of Noirmoutier • The Viking World • The first attack of the Lindisfarne Monastery marked the beginning of a 200 year period of raids in northern Europe, a period known as the age of the Vikings

  10. The people of Scandinavia, also called Northman, Norsemen (Northern Europe) In Viking homelands, society was basedon agriculture and the sea As Scandinavians population grew, resources became limited so the Vikings decided to take what they needed from other people Thus started the Viking raids 300 - 1500 Who are the Vikings? • Erik the Red – conquered Greenland and Iceland 982 • Leif Eriksson – explored North America, but did they reach Minnesota? (1100)

  11. First raids were England and northern France As time passed they reached Kiev and Constantinople Not all were raiders, many were explorers (Iceland, Greenland, Canada) Vikings were superb ship builders and sailors (excellent navigators) Ships could withstand heavy ocean winds and carried as many as 100 warriors 300 - 1500 Viking Conquests and Settlements Erik the Red Leif Eriksson Viking long boat

  12. As Vikings terrorized northern and western Europe, the Magyars invaded from the east Magyars- nomads (horsemen) who settled in what is now Hungary Military tactic invaded small settlements In mid 900’s, King Otto the Great crushed the Magyar raids 300 - 1500 The Magyars

  13. In 711, a Muslim Army from northern Africa crossed the straits of Gibraltar and made conquest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain/Portugal) Ruled the peninsula for more than 700 years Cordoba – one of the wealthiest and most culturally advanced cities of the medieval world In 800’s and 900’s, Muslim raids in southern France, Rome Italy, and Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire, led to a shift in power from Christianity to Islam Feudalism in Europe developsin response of the invasions of the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims 300 - 1500 Moors, African Muslims in Spain • Legend has it that King Rodrigo of Spain married the daughter of one of his noblemen, Count Julian against the wishes of her father. To avenge what Julian perceived as his violated honor, he opened secret parleys with the enemy and invited with the Emir (Governor) Musa ibn Nusayr, the Muslim ruler of North Africa, who was based in Tunisia to invade Spain. • The Caliph al-Walid authorized the invasion of Spain (710-711 AD), on condition that Count Julian recited the Shahada and embraced Islam.

  14. In Europe, during the Middle Ages, the feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties and obligations As the Middle Ages progressed, knights began to emerge as key figures in Europe What was responsible for this change? 300 - 1500 3. The Greatest Knight? • William Marshall • Served the first four English kings

  15. Origins of feudalism 300 - 1500 • For protection nobles built castles to defend their lands

  16. 300 - 1500 Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle – • Castles were built on hills because hilltop locations were easier to defend • Most early castles were made of wood and stone • Castles were defended by nobles soldiers, known as knights

  17. Knights and Lords 300 - 1500 • Main room of the castle called the hall – dining and entertaining • Bedrooms separated by sheets and near latrines (bathrooms) Hay for toilet paper!!! Parts of a Medieval Castle • Being a knight was expensive, therefore nobles gave knights land for payment of service • This land was called a • Anyone who accepted the land from the lord was called a vassal • This is known as the

  18. Feudalism build upon relationship and service A knights duty to his lord Provide Remain Give A Lord’s duty to his Knights Give Protect Resolve 300 - 1500 Feudal Obligations • – oath or loyalty between knight and his king

  19. 300 - 1500 Chivalry: A Code of Honor and Behavior • Generic term • First appeared with military actions against non-Christian states • Protectors of their religious faith Christianity • Chivalry also directed that men should honor, serve, and do nothing to displease women and maidens

  20. 300 - 1500 ▪ • Feudal system built around large estates called manors • Owned by wealthy lords or knights • Serfs – peasant workers who were legally tied to the manor on which they worked • Manors land occupied by fields for crops and pastures for animals • Three crop rotating system

  21. 300 - 1500 Life on the Medieval Manor • Serfs at work • Legally tied to the manor • Serfdom was hereditary • Lived in small one to two room cottages –floor was packed dirt/roof was straw (cooking by fire!!!)

  22. The power of the kings grewand the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the early middle ages 1066 – King Harold saw what we think was Haley’s comet, appear in the sky He thought it was a sign that change was coming to England Within a year, and took the throne 300 - 1500 4. The Growth of Monarchs • A Sign from Heaven • William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry)

  23. England was one of the first countries in Europe to develop a strong central monarchy Anglo Saxon Rule –drove out the Vikings In 1066, William, Duke of Normandy of France, in the battle of Hastings took the English throne Domesday Book – a book that William used to create a new central tax system for England 300 - 1500 The English Monarchy

  24. One of William’s descendants, King Henry, married a powerful French duchess, Together, they ruled all of England and most of France The kings of England become more powerful than French counterparts 300 - 1500 The English in France

  25. 300 - 1500 England’s Political System • Henry I, King William’s son, set up a court system and a department of royal finances, under an Exchequer who collected taxes • Henry II, established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom • Under his court, he established a grand jury and trial by jury. • 1200 – the power of the English kings started to worry a group of nobles • Noble Revolution under King John, who tried to raise money with a new tax to help him regain France – led to a

  26. 300 - 1500 Magna Carta, 1215 • The Magna Carta was a King must obtain consent from the nobles if he wished to raise taxes • Also ended king’s ability to arrest and punish people without cause or to take property without legal procedures • King is not above the law • One of the more Important documents in the formation of modern democracies

  27. 300 - 1500 The Beginnings of the British Parliament • Great Council: • middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. • eventually called – governing body of England today • by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords nobles & clergy and the House of Commons  knights and burgesses.

  28. 300 - 1500 The French Monarchy • After the death of Charlemagne, England controlled France for quite sometime • Hugh Capet – Capetian family who managed to expel the English nobles out of France • 1300 – controlled most of modern France

  29. The eastern part of Charlemagne’s empire became known as Germany 936 – – duke of Saxony- gained the throne and conquered parts of northern Italy Just like Charlemagne, Otto was crowned Emperor of the Romans in 962. Became known as the Holy Roman Empire because king had God’s support 300 - 1500 Holy Roman Empire

  30. Spain and Portugal the growth of monarchies was coupled with religious struggle between Christians and Muslims Moors of Cordoba controlled Spain for 700 years The Reconquista – Christian effort to retake the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims Leader of the Reconquistas was the king of Castile of Spain who eventually united with the queen of Aragon of Portugal In 1492, once they rid the Moors from Spain, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella ruled one of the strongest countries in all of Europe 300 - 1500 Spain and Portugal’s Monarchy

  31. Who would have the power to make an emperor wait in the snow, begging for an audience? Emperor Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire waited three days to meet with Pope Gregory VII and the Countess Matilda Emperor Henry IV wanted to ask the countess to intervene in his conflict with the pope 300 - 1500 5. The Power of the Church

  32. are head of the Roman Catholic Church and throughout the Middle Ages, they became powerful political figures Great level of Piety – person’s level of devotion to his or her religion Europeans placed a great importance on faith and their devotions to Christianity 300 - 1500 Religion in the Middle Ages

  33. In 1049, the first series of clever and capable popes dedicated to reforming the papacy came to power Leo IX – reformer who became more active in governing the church than any other pope had been for centuries Pontification – papal term in office – under Pope Gregory VII Emperor Henry wrote a letter to Pope Gregory claiming that he had no authority over him or any other ruler Gregory excommunicated Henry IV Henry begged for forgiveness 300 - 1500 Growth of the Papal Power Pope Gregory VII • Henry IV

  34. Early 900’s, a small group of monks, sought to return monasticism to its original Benedictine Rule was dedicated to leading simple lives. Monks spent part of each day in prayer and part at work Lived like hermits and had no contract with other people 300 - 1500 Changes in Monasticism

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