Towards a n ation wide f ibre f ootprint in r esearch and e ducation n etworking
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Towards a N ation-wide F ibre F ootprint in R esearch and E ducation N etworking. Lada Altmannova Stanislav Sima Rhodes June 9th, 2004. Situation in REN design.

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Towards a n ation wide f ibre f ootprint in r esearch and e ducation n etworking

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in Research and Education Networking

Lada Altmannova

Stanislav Sima

Rhodes June 9th, 2004


Situation in ren design
Situation in REN design

  • Network design is on the top of design levels hierarchy: ICs, cards/units, computers, networks, and is relatively new. WAN/MAN design is still less developed (mainly in consequence of previous long-term monopolies).

  • Traditional building elements (procured) are data transmission services, routers, terminals, etc.

  • Traditional network function is to provide best effort IP connectivity

  • New building elements: dark fibres, optical transmission equipment, switches

  • New network function: provide E2E circuits

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Multi vendor network design
Multi-vendor network design

  • Multi-vendor networking is necessary for feasibility in multiple domain

  • Multi-vendor networking is necessary in general case for cost effectiveness also in single domain

  • Standards, Multi-Source Agreements (MSA), interoperability, etc. gives you independence on one vendor (in design, reparation, upgrade, etc.) and allows you to buy best equipment in each category

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Fibre is strategic asset
Fibre is strategic asset

  • Fibre infrastructure has been recognised as strategic asset for research and education networking

    • In some countries, states or regions in Canada, Europe and USA since 2000

    • In USA (national scale) since 2003

    • in EU (union scale) since 2004 (GN2)

  • Customer Empowered Fibre(CEF) networks are emerging technology, that gradually changes network topology, architecture and services from bottom of hierarchy to top

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Lengths of dark fibres in rens
Lengths of dark fibres in RENs

  • More than 20 000 km in Europe

    (plus some fibres for GN2 and GN2 testbed)

  • About 33 920 km in USA

    (including National LambdaRail)

  • About 6 700 km in Canada

  • NFF contracted in Australia ….

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Cef networks and industry support
CEF Networks and industry support

  • Government support of network research should prepare investment opportunity and should support national/federal/union industry development

  • Traditionally this means support of carriers and router vendors

  • For CEF Networks this means rathersupport of fibre cable vendors, companies laying fibre cables with maintenance, transmission equipment vendors etc.

  • Optronics vendors now are becoming aware of the non-carrier (enterprise, RENs) market for their gear

  • =CEF Networks brings new relation between network research and vendors

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Economics decides
Economics decides

  • Dark fibres brings progress to REN design and subsequently to WAN design generally (and than in competition winner takes nearly all)

  • Strategic importance of getting fibres has been recognised

  • Comparison of temporary dark fibre and lambdas prices is usable for very partial view only and cannot solve problem in general. Economics decides, but not naïve economics.

  • Some reasons: uncertain number of lambdas, period of using, future upgrade of the transmission rate, topology changes, uncertain future economical conditions, unexpected new possibilities, …

  • Actual result: some managers build CEF Networks and others study the problem…

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Why dark fibre for rens
Why dark fibre for RENs ?

  • Freedom in REN design

  • Getting fibre means controlling the network

  • Independence on carriers and on router vendors

  • Fixed costs of long-term use

  • Transmission capacity up to Tbps

  • Cost-effective ways of fibre sharing (WDM, TDM, …)

  • Expensive dark fibres can be shared by non-profit partners

  • Multiple wavelengths possible (e.g. 1 – 256)

  • Multiple fibres in cable, multiple ducts in way…

  • Equipment selection, moving, design, …..

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


How to go from telco services to dark fibres
How to go from telco services to dark fibres

  • Procure dark fibre independently and before lambdas procurement

  • Prefer agreements on long term lease with discounts instead of IRU (disadvantages of IRU are prepayment, taxes and risk of bankruptcy)

  • Do not relay on one provider only, maintain concurrency (for price and for first mile acquiring)

  • If price is not excellent, use annual contracts and re-procurement

  • If dark fibre line is not offered but exists, use annual contract for lambda(s) and re-procure dark fibre

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Dark fibre deployment in rens
Dark fibre deployment in RENs

  • Increasing and world-wide deployment of dark fibre (acquisition of dark fibres instead of SDH or lambda services) – without moving back

  • Increasing number of customer premises connected by fibre: to achieve this is more difficult problem than intercity fibre acquisition

  • Lease of fibres: good prices are 0.4 Euro/m/pair/year for G.652 or 0.5 Euro/m/pair/year for G.655 , including maintenance

  • Building first mile 12 fibre lines: about 30 Euro/m in ground (6 month for delivery), and about 10 Euro/m in air (3 month for delivery)

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Cef network architecture will be new
CEF network architecture will be new

  • Prefer network architecture with NIL (singlespan) lines and without overlaying (concurrent) fibres

  • KIS rule for fibres: Keep It Short, including connections crossing state borders

  • Realization oflambdas by own equipment and fibres for long distance data transmission

  • Search actively for new fibre providers (railways, roads and highways, electric power, fuel, gas and heat distribution companies, cable TV companies, etc.)

  • Search actively for regional authorities and local boards cooperation on laying first mile fibre cables

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Photonic air links pal
Photonic Air Links (PAL)

  • Gigabit transmission rates are possible in free space

  • Customer Empowered Photonic (CEP) Networks are expected: fibre+PAL

  • PAL is used usually between buildings (fan-out of photonic transmission to end users in some area)

  • Transmission rate: from 10 Mbps up to 2.5 Gbps, distance 100 m – 4000 m, costs 1500 – 30 000 Euro

  • DIY solution of PAL 10 Mbps (for example for students to home – costs 150 Euro)

  • Microwave backup (probably up to 622 Mbps) of PAL (on L1 level) is possible – e. g. for foggy weather

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs




Dark fibre lighting register see before new line design
Dark fibre lighting register: see before new line design

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Nff in european nrens
NFFin European NRENs

  • Switzerland

    • SWITCH: NFF operational, 1150 km, transmission system with own development (NIL on single fibre)

  • The Czech Republic

    • CESNET2: NFF operational, 2800 km, transmission system with own development (long distance NIL)

    • CzechLight: 445 km DF with experimental traffic

  • Poland

    • PIONIER: NFF 2648 km plus 1426 km own and leased fibresoperational, plus 2300 km in negotiation

    • 10GE DWDM transmission system operational

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Nff in european nrens ii
NFF in European NRENs II.

  • Ireland

    • HEAnet : 1300 km fibres available, operational part, support of optical networking abroad

  • The Netherlands

    • SURFnet6: 4000 km fibres available, operational part with DWDM transmission system, new approach on NREN architecture (central routers only)

  • Slovakia

    • SANET: NFF operational, 1660 km own and leased fibres, GE transmission system, partially CWDM 4 x GE

  • Serbia

    • RCUB: 115 km operational, contracted 1400 km with telco operator (with government support), GE transmission system, CWDM testing

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Nff in european nrens iii
NFF in European NRENs III.

  • Portugal

    • FCCN : Tender for 400 km dark fibre

  • Denmark

    • UNI-C : 525 km dark fiber for testing, 10 GE

  • Norway

    • using or sharing of nation-wide dark fibre available (by agreement with telco operator)

  • See reference to CEF Networks workshop for more details

  • Metropolitan dark fibre RENs in Netherlands, Poland, Czech Rep., Greece, Hungary, Ireland, …..

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs




Cheaper international f ibre f ootprint iff
CheaperInternational Fibre Footprint (IFF)

  • KIS: Connect dark fibres used by NREN by a short cross-border fibre lines (called also Near over Border - NoB)

  • Use WDM equipment on national and cross-border fibres for implementation of international lambdas between end users

  • This KIS approach avoids some double payments of fibres or lambdas (parallel lines are paid by NREN and DANTE), in the biggest item of budgets

  • Such change of networking strategy is difficult, needs research and testbeds

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Kis for cheaper architecture
KIS for cheaper architecture

  • Connection of NRENs by short dark fibre (Keep It Short) between NREN PoPs or Users Near over Border (NoB)

  • NoB dark fibres (lenght, status):

    • Bratislava (Slovakia)–Vienna (Austria): 104 km, operational

    • Bratislava (Slovakia)–Brno (Czech Rep.): 182 km, operational

    • Ostrava (Czech Rep.)-Bialsko-Biela (Poland): 136 km, available

    • Subotica (Serbia)-Szeged (Hungary): 40 km, available

    • Kista in Stockholm (Sweden)-Ventspils (Latvia): 405 km, experimental university connection, undersea part

  • Other lines are prepared

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Examples see g ant topology
Examples (see GÉANT topology)

  • Short dark fibres Brno – Bratislava – Vienna and Ostrava –Bialsko-Biala gives possibility to realize lambdas Prague – Bratislava, Prague – Vienna, Poznan – Vienna, Prague – Poznan etc.

  • Lambda services London – Stockholm and Poznan – Stockholm could be realized by means of connections London – Brussels – Amsterdam – Copenhagen – Stockholm and Poznan - Copenhagen

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Pc light
PC Light

  • Design Kit for wide area fibre networks, based on racked PCs with build-in optical amplifier modules

  • Multi-vendor (multi-source) building elements

  • Preliminary comparison of OA (EDFA) costs:

    • OA from „ISP vendor“: 40 000 USD

    • OA from „optical vendor“: 18 000 USD

    • OA from „module vendor“: 2 500 USD (two OA in module)

    • OA from Integrated Circuit vendor: ??? (forthcoming)

  • OA costs are the biggest item in long distance transmission systems costs (e.g. 60%)

    => PC Light helps to radically change WAN/MAN costs

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Edfa 2in1 pc light equipment example
EDFA 2in1: PC Light equipment example

  • PC with build-in OA EDFA booster and preamp

  • Successfully used for NIL GE connection from Plzen to CzechLight in Prague by dark fibre pair (159.4 km, 36.7 dB) since May 2004

  • One Side Amplification (OSA NIL approach): this equipment is placed in Prague only. No OA equipment is placed in Plzen, so we expect lower service costs and higher availability (we have 24/7 staff in Prague only)

  • Advantages: low cost, low size (1U), low power consumption, Linux, SNMP, reach up to 225 km, possibility of development, ….

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Edfa 2in1 edfa module in standard 1u pc with linux

Alarm LEDs

Low NF preamplifier

PA IN

PA OUT

BO IN

BO OUT

Flash disc*

Booster

+5V DC

IDE

RS 232

Power Supply

MicroATX MainBoard with fanless CPU

FE

USB

* Network boot is also possible

RS232C

EDFA 2in1: EDFA Module in Standard 1U PC with Linux

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Pc light forthcoming
PC Light forthcoming

  • EDFA 2in1 works on 10 GE (tested in laboratory)

  • GE interface card on 1550 nm

  • GE interface card for bidirectional transmission on single fibre

  • etc.

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Lighting of dark fibre nil approach
Lighting of dark fibre: NIL approach

  • Production lines G.652, 1550 nm, EDFA

    • 189 km Praha – Pardubice GE since May 2002

    • 235 km Brno – Ostrava GE since June 2003

  • Experimental lines G.652, 1550 nm, EDFA

    • 235 km Brno – Ostrava OC-48 June 2003

    • 286 km Praha – Brno GE May 2004 (+Raman)

  • More wavelengths possible

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Nil tests in laboratory
NIL tests in laboratory

  • G.652 fibre spools, EDFA + Raman:

    • 325 km GE

    • 250 km OC-48

    • 252 km 2x 10 GE

    • 290 km 10 G DWDM

  • G.655 fibre spools (recently delivered):

    • testing

    • lower cost of dispersion compensation on 10 Gbps

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Prepared czechlight pop in brno
Prepared CzechLight PoP in Brno

  • Fibre Praha - Brno 298.3 km, including 257.3 km of G.655 fibre.

  • DWDM 10 Gbps cards for Cisco 15454

  • NIL transmission, if possible

  • June – July 2004

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Global lambda integrated facility glif
Global Lambda Integrated Facility (GLIF)

  • Environment for co-operation:

    networking, infrastructure, network engineering, system integration, middleware, applications

  • GLIF was established by invited participants at the 3rd Global Lambda Grid Workshop, held August 27, 2003 in Reykjavik, Island, www.glif.is

  • Dark fibres are often used for Gigabit or 10 Gigabit access to cities and university premises

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Czechlight may 2004
CzechLight May 2004

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Prepared czechlight connections
Prepared CzechLight connections

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


References
References

  • Presentations from CEF Networks Workshop, Prague, May 2004 http://www.ces.net/project/optsit/CEFNetworks/

  • Dark fibre Sweden-Latvia www.balticopen.net

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Example from balticopen
Example from BalticOpen

Stockholm

Ut

ö

Ventspils Nafta

F

å

r

ö

sund

Ventspils

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs


Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement

  • Jan Gruntorad for support and GLIF entry

  • Miroslav Karasek and Jan Radil for lighting of CESNET2 and CzechLight fibres

  • Josef Vojtech for EDFA 2in1 development

  • Comment: presented ideas and opinions are result of our ongoing R&D activities and are opened to improvement

Towards a Nation-wide Fibre Footprint in RENs