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…a selected overview. the “Bright” Future for Neutrino Facilities around the world. L. R. Sulak CPPM Marseille and Boston University. a new era since 1998, the advent of neutrino mass and oscillations now a panoply of key, very difficult, experiments

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…a selected overview...

the “Bright” Future for Neutrino Facilities

around the world

L. R. Sulak

CPPM Marseille and Boston University

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


a new era since 1998, the advent of neutrino mass and oscillations

now a panoply of key, very difficult, experiments

precision neutrino oscillation parameters Petcov for CP violation in a second sector of nature

neutrinoless double beta decay Avignone,Vergados

absolute mass scale...the problem of mass Feruglio

neutrino astronomy

all point to high energy scale, possibly Grand Unification scale

each goal has very different needs

neutrino sources...flux, energy, baseline

detectors...shielding, depth, volume

neutrinos...physics as important as searching for electroweak scale

... neutrinos merit the many required new facilities

de Gouvea, Spiro, Wolfenstein...

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...the future...

Evolution of Major Neutrino Research Worldwide

Facility Detectors Neutrino Source

SNOLab SNO→SNO+ →SNO++ Bruce Reactor

+ bb, Dark Matter + ...

Soudan Lab Minos→NOnA NuMI → p driver+

Kamioka Lab SK→Hyper-K K2K→T2K KEK → JPARC+

Kamland→ many reactors

+ ...

Gran Sasso Lab Opera, Icarus CNGS → SPL+ + ...

Modane Lab→ →Megaton CERN → SPL+

+ ...

South Pole Amanda→IceCube astro

Mediterranean Antares/Nemo/Nestor→Km3 astro

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...time limits talk to selected future operations not already discussed...

(apologies to many friends for providing info for other facilities)

SNOLab... “new” international lab, in transition

$50 M expansion program to accommodate many experiments

SNO detector evolution Wilkerson

Km3 astrophysical observatory... 3 sites and 2 technologies Piatelli,Thompson

first data from Nestor prototype “star” Tzamarias

construction of 12 “string” Antares underway Anton

requested 10 M Euro for Km3 engineering, site study in approval process

Frejus Lab...a home for Megaton?

with potential ideal beams from CERN

Neutrino planning studies in the US

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


Nestor prototype

“Star” Deployment March 2003

6 blue optical modules

2 pm’s each

6 yellow floats

above pix:

white lines to bouy

red line to LED beacon

below, unseen:

lines to junction box


Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak



M.C. Prediction

Data Points

Zenith Angle (degrees)

Angular Fits to Nestor Raw Data

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


Nestor measurement of atmospheric muon flux existence proof for deep underwater technology


...deployment of Antares preproduction prototype string, 5 OMs, 2002 Anton

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


beside geography,

why so many facilities?

for Megaton...

the bigger the better.

for solar and

background sensitive exp’ts

the deeper, the better

e.g. impossible for IMB

consider SNO at Sudbury

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...Letters of Intent, presentations from last month…Sinclair

Prospective Experiments at New SNOLab Int’l Facility

6 kmwe, deepest int’l facility: 70 muons/day vs. 26,000/day at Kamioka

2 new halls, 30m x 15m, approved (~1/2 size vs. Gran Sasso), $50 M upgrades

potentially in new halls, starting ‘07: Dark Matter Searches

CDMS vs Soudan, SNO depth minimizes muon-induced fast neutrons Akerib

ZEPLIN dark matter with liquid scintillator, if Boulby is not deep enough Smith

CLEAN 1 T (10 T for solar n) self-shielded, scintillating liquid Ne/Xe* McKinsey

XENON drifting charge dark matter search - R & D Aprile

DRIFT dark matter with pointing using low pressure TPC: Martoff

PICASSO acoustic detection of nuclear recoil with superheated bubbles in gel Zacek

or Neutrino Experiments

HALO SNO 3He detectors with Pb, supernova neutrinos Duba

Noble Liquid Tracking Detectors for solar neutrinos with He or Xe Willis

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


or Double Beta Decay searches

Majorana 500 kg of Ge detectors for  : scale up of known technology Elliott

GERDA (~GENIUS) 1 T Ge crystals in clean Liq N2, no housings, self-shielded Abt

EXO Xe TPC, with laser fluorescence tag of Ba upon decay Gratta

COBRA CdZnTe...semiconductor, all 3  candidates Zuber

with the SNO Detector or Cavity

after 3He neutral current work is done, SNO Phase III over, D2O comes out in ’07

SNO+ geo and reactor neutrinos: fill with scintillator

with n tag, get 700 kT fiducial Chen &

SNO++  Decay: scintillator + 1 Ton of Te or Nb nanocrystals McDonald

or + 2 Ton Xe dissolved gas

SNO best facility in world for almost all experiments?

...but potential cavity size too small for Megaton

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...potential future of SNO+ Detector, for geo and reactor neutrinos...

A Closer Look at SNO+

infrastructure for low background work

e.g. low Rn cover gas (N2), 1 neutron capture/day from U&Th

1 kT of low background liquid scintillator, as in KamLAND w/ 10-17

Geo electron anti-neutrinos Gratta

n energy = 3.4 MeV - 1.8 MeV Q = 1.6 MeV positron + 1 MeV e+e- annihilation = 2.6 MeV deposited

for KamLAND: at 180 km from reactors, looking for geo n at <2.6 MeV

overwhelmed by 2nd oscillation minimum at 3 MeV

...hard to extract geo n since reactor n spectrum distorted just there

and only ~40 geoneutrinos per year

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


consider geo signal to noise Fiorentini

...KamLAND poised to make another “splash” ...

...but geo-neutrinos and reactor neutrinos are difficult to separate

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


... SNO+ vs. KamLAND: how important is distance from reactor?

SNO+ is 240 km from 14 GW Bruce vs KamLAND at 180 km from 80 GW


2nd reactor oscillation minimum moves up x 1.5 to 5 MeV

reactor flux is max

no geo n signal >3.4 MeV

...clean for reactor neutrinos

narrower dip  sharper spectral distortion

a notch at 5 MeV

80 events / year, if no reactor oscillations

note subtle difference in pattern with Casper’s Oscillator

for geo-neutrinos, look < 2.6 MeV,

at SNO+ many fewer reactor neutrinos (1 reactor, further away)

oscillation pattern smeared out

64 geo-neutrino events / year vs. 29 at KamLAND & 10 at Borexino

U/Th neutrino source thick continental crust, Galbiati

vs. the thin coastal crust in Japan

SNO+... ideal to separate geo from reactor neutrinos?

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...again using the great depth...

SNO+ as low energy solar neutrino detector

7Be 0.86 MeV line

10% calculational, 40% experimental uncertainty...difficult

pep 1.44 MeV line...a precision measurement

1% predicted uncertainty...3000/year oscillated

muon-induced 11C → e+ gives 1 MeV within 20 minutes

untenable background in KamLAND , Borexino

SNO+ : with only 70 muons/day

track muon and veto 1 m radius around it

see talk of Suzuki

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...the other lab with a rebirth...

Modane Megaton detector: two possible sites, both ~130 km to CERN

Fréjus I required second tunnel, near the present lab, ’05-’08

deep covering, 4800 mwe

dry rock, good quality, well known

question: 5m diameter safety tunnel or 10m roadway?

Fréjus II 15 km experimental tunnel for new Lyon-Torino TGV train

(actual train tunnel to be longest and deepest in Europe)

endorsed by Chirac and Berlusconi on Monday

covering of 7000 mwe

rock expected to be hard, but not yet studied

potentially water, since glaciers above

problem: regional support for lab if no entry in France?

Bouchez, Gerbier, Mosca


EU: build Megaton for proton decay and supernova after tunneling

super and beta beams later...(CLIC competition?)

JPARC/T2K: Hyper-K and 2 MW proton source upgrade tentative, pending

proton decay hint at Super-K, or

favorable θ13 measurement in T2K...Hyper-K could be much later

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


Advantages of both Frejus Sites

independent, horizontal access

neutrino super-beams and beta beams likely upgrades to CERN

at “magic distance” and right L/E (130 km/0.3 GeV) for those beams

if LEP RF cavities recycled, 2.2 GeV protons give 0.3 GeV n

higher energy, muon/pion discrimination a problem

lower energy, muons don’t make enough Cherenkov light in water

(further away, higher E, as in US, e/po/g separation a problem for Č

French and Italian joint initiative

“extension” of Gran Sasso Lab... water prevents a Megaton cavity

preliminary study of large cavity (106 m3) at both Fréjus sites 

maximum possible size of cavity for each of 3 shapes?

cost and time of excavation?

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...under study

Modane “Megaton,” 2 detector technologies, 3 geometries

1 MT water Cherenkov à la Hyper-K

100 kT liquid argon Bueno, Rubbia

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


Bouchez, Gerbier, Mosca

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...meanwhile in America?

Two Neutrino Physics Planning Processes

American Physical Society Neutrino August Freedman & Kayser

set priorities for experiments with neutrinos: solar & atmospheric




double beta decay

NSF Initiative: A “Deep Engineering and Science Underground Laboratory”

7 potential sites: Henderson, Homestake, Icicle Creek,

Kimburton, San Jacinto, Soudan, WIPP

3 solicitations for proposals:

1) site independent physics justification and requirements, May ‘04

2) site specific proposals, a few to be chosen

3) full proposals, limited to the NSF selected sites

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak



new recognition of importance of neutrino physics

relative to electroweak symmetry breaking

necessity of coupled source / detector facilities

synergism with proton drivers at CERN, FNAL, JPARC

increased luminosity and intensity for other experiments

radioactive ion beams...nuclear, biology, medicine

naturally lead to hot neutrino beams

Hayato, Kobayashi, Mezzetto

Neutrino ’06: results expected from

Antares, well as many other experiments

longer term: significant promise for Hyper-K, IceCube, Km3, Megaton

...bright future for neutrino facilities, near, medium and long term

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


...but first, a personal “au revoir” recognizing precocious mentorship

for proton decay, neutrino oscillation searches...

wild ideas welcome...

acoustic detection ‘77, water Cherenkov ’77 & ‘79, up/down ne/nm asymmetry ‘79

...and the tradition lives on Learned

George Marx and Angel Morales,

homage for this, their conference series

godfathers to neutrino physics

and the legacy of detectors that followed

Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak


…wither this next step in neutrino physics in Europe?

Future European Neutrino Sources and Detectors

Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe for Hi Intensity Proton Pulsed Injector

CERN accelerator projects: Multi-MegaWatt Proton Linac

RFQ preinjector 3MeV @ 50 mA... a project of CEA, CNRS, IN2P3

Linac 4 3 MeV → 160MeV…5-10 x more protons...R&D

Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL at CERN, Proton Driver at FNAL)

160 MeV → 2 GeV x 2 mA = 4 MW goal for 2014

the promise for neutrino physics:

Super-intense CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (SCNGS)

2 x more neutrinos (limited by other elements in complex)

Super (but conventional) Neutrino Beams...many more neutrinos

(Advantages for LHC (robust operation, hi luminosity for UltraLHC, rare K decays, etc 3-4 x more protons on target)


Neutrino 2004 - L. Sulak