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Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy With a Supercontinuum Source. Paul S. Johnston Kevin K. Lehmann Departments of Chemistry & Physics University of Virginia.

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broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a supercontinuum source

Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy With a Supercontinuum Source

Paul S. Johnston

Kevin K. Lehmann

Departments of Chemistry & Physics

University of Virginia

slide2
In the past decade, the use of low loss optical cavities have become widely used to achieve high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy. Multiple variants, including

Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

NICE-OHMS

Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

Dielectric Super Mirrors ( < 100 ppm reflection loss) have been key to the sensitivity enhancements of these methods.

limitations of super mirrors
Limitations of Super Mirrors
  • High reflectivity bandwidth of dielectric mirrors limited to a few % in wavelength
    • They are 1-dimensional photonic crystals.
  • One can extend bandwidth by chirping the coatings of the layers but this increases loss and dramatically reduces damage threshold
  • High reflectivity (>99.9%) is only available for far less than an octave in the spectrum.
  • Need to use reflectors that do not depend upon interference.
slide4

Brewster Angle Prism Retroreflector

Ring-down Resonator

Output

Input

q

b

q

b

P- polarization

6 meter radius

of curvature

G. Engel et al., in Laser Spectroscopy XIV International Conference,

Eds. R. Blatt et al. pgs. 314-315 (World Scientific, 1999).

slide5

Advantages of Prism Cavity

  • Wide spectral coverage - Simultaneous detection of multiple species
  • Compact ring geometry (no optical isolation required)
  • No dielectric coatings (harsh environments)
  • Coupling can be optimized for broadband
  • Analysis: Paul S. Johnston & KKL, Applied Optics 48, 2966-2978 (2009)
what are loses of prism cavity
What are loses of Prism Cavity?
  • Deviation from Brewster’s Angle
  • Surface Scattering at optical surfaces
    • Need super polishing
  • Bulk Absorption and Scattering Losses
    • Rayleigh Scattering Dominates for fused silica prisms
  • Birefringence which converts P -> S polarization
    • Strain must be minimized.
surface scattering losses
Surface Scattering Losses
  • Surfaces super polished to s = 1 Å rms
  • Loss for each total internal reflection:
    • (4 n cos()  / 0)2 =0.15 ppm for 0 = 1 mm
  • Loss for each Brewster Surface:
  • Total < 2 ppm/prism at 1 mm.
  • Finite angular spread of beam leads to <0.02 ppm loss
bulk loss
Bulk Loss
  • For fused silica, scattering loss dominates absorption for l < 1.8 mm.
    • small residual [OH] absorption near 1.4 mm.
    • Prisms made of Suprasil 3001 which has [OH] < 1 ppm
  • Rayleigh scattering loss ~ l0-4
    • loss of ~ 1 ppm/cm @ 1 mm.
    • Intracavity pathlength of 3.8 cm for our prisms (16 mm length on short side)
source for broad bandwidth coherent radiation supercontinuum photonic crystal fibers
Source for Broad Bandwidth Coherent Radiation:Supercontinuum Photonic Crystal Fibers
  • Material: Pure Silica
  • Core diameter: 4.8 + 0.2 µm
  • Cladding diameter: 125 + 3 µm
  • Zero dispersion wavelength: 1040 + 10 nm
  • Nonlinear Coefficient at 1060 nm: 11 (W·Km)-1

www.crystal-fibre.com

supercontinuum generation
Supercontinuum Generation
  • Fiber
    • Length = 12 m
  • Input
    • Average power: 1.0 W @ 1064 nm
    • Rep rate: 29.41 kHz
    • Pulse energy: 34 mJ
    • Peak power: 3.4 kW
  • Output
    • Average output power: 0.270 W (at input polarizer)
    • Loss of ~50% power through polarizer
higher power supercontinuum from mode lock nd yag laser
Higher Power Supercontinuum from mode lock Nd:YAG laser
  • Input:
    • Spectra Physics Vanguard.
    • 80 MHz/ 30 psec pulse train
    • Average power: 9.5 W @ 1064 nm
    • Peak power: ~10 kW
  • Supercontinuum Output
    • Average output power: 3.2 W
    • With optimized fiber, we expect higher conversion
cavity enhanced spectroscopy
Cavity enhanced spectroscopy

Measure time integrated intensity

  • Advantages
    • Relatively high sensitivity
    • Simpler set up
  • Sensitivity limitations
    • Residual mode structure
    • Laser noise

Berden, G.; Peeters, R.; Meijer, G. Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.2000, 19, 565.

allan variance
Allan Variance
  • Read CCD every 10 sec for ~8 hrs
  • Successive CCD readings were binned for time intervals of Dt.
  • Variance calculated for ratio of spectra for each Dt pair.
  • Minimum noise point: 90 min

650 nm

current status
Current Status
  • Absorption Sensitivity 5.88x10-9 cm-1
    • Equivalent to 1.6 x 10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2
    • Shot noise limited
    • Shot noise limit extends to ~90 min integration.
  • Resolution ~0.05 cm-1 (2 GHz)
    • Close to diffraction limit for 25 cm grating used
  • Bandwidth vs. resolution limited by CCD
improvements
Improvements....
  • Expand simultaneous spectral coverage
    • Plan to use FTIR to cover entire spectral range of super continuum.
    • Considering construction of Echelle Spectrograph which will allow efficient use of most of CCD pixels.
  • CaF2 prisms should allow extension into the UV, BaF2 prisms into the mid-IR.
i admit it i ve got comb envy
I admit it; I’ve got comb envy!
  • As already discussed by Jun Ye, a vastly higher power can be coupled in with a frequency comb
  • Hansch’s group has shown how a vernier principle can be used to get single comb resolution with a modest resolution spectrograph
  • Dispersion limits the spectral width that can be simultaneously coupled into the cavity
acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Dr. Paul Rabinowitz
  • Tiger Optics research team
  • University of Virginia, National Science Foundation, and the Petroleum Research Fund.
white light sources
White light sources

http://www.crystal-fibre.com