Everything You Wanted to Know About GPS and WAAS April 2008 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Everything You Wanted to Know About GPS and WAAS April 2008
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Everything You Wanted to Know About GPS and WAAS April 2008

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  1. Everything YouWanted to KnowAbout GPS and WAASApril 2008

  2. Everything YouWanted to KnowAbout GPS and WAAS(Unless you are an engineer!)

  3. Agenda • Basics of GPS • Recent change to AIM, AC 90-100 • RNAV, RNP or not? • WAAS • How it works • What can it do for me? • Approaches (LPV, LNAV/VNAV) • SIDs, STARs, Q-Routes, and T-Routes • What’s next? • Performance-based National Airspace System • Q&A

  4. The Usual Caveats • Valid for navigation in the US National Airspace System • Does not invalidate or change ANYTHING required by your POI or in your OpSpec • Does not supersede ANYTHING in your POH/AFM • Some equipment requires specific operational mitigations

  5. FAA Mission • Provide the safest, most efficient aerospace system in the world Navigation Services goal • Provide safe, cost effective navigation services to meet operational needs of the aviation customer

  6. The National Airspace System (NAS) • 20,000 airports* • 750 control facilities • 4,000 commercial flights per day • 100,000 commercial passengers per day • Plus thousands of Part 91 operations every day • Source: FAA Administrator’s Fact Book, January 2008

  7. GPS Basics • Nominal 24 GPS satellites in medium earth orbit • Each satellite transmits data message • Airborne receiver processes message to determine position/velocity/time • Navigation function; either in FMS or in GPS (stand-alone) • Linear, not angular

  8. Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) • Calculates your position vs. satellites to determine if sufficient for navigation • Considers known satellite outages • RAIM check for destination and alternate • Required for GPS

  9. www.RAIMPrediction.net

  10. NOTAMS • GPS outages • Usually military • Satellite outages • Used in RAIM prediction

  11. With Approved GPS, I can: • File RNAV • Fly an LNAV approach • Fly an RNP/RNAV approach • Fly a GPS approach • …but I can’t file a GPS alternate

  12. An RNAV Aircraft Can • Substitute RNAV for VOR, ADF or DME that is out of service • Use as alternative means of navigation guidance (no requirement to monitor VOR, etc.) • Extracted from AIM, Section 1-2-3, “Use of RNAV Equipment on Conventional Procedures and Routes” • Define “Conventional”

  13. “Conventional” Is Not RNAV • Older TSOC-129 boxes • Lack sufficient database memory • May lack ability to provide path guidance (path terminators) • Suitable for most operations, but not RNAV/RNP • No restrictions on newer units • Information on specific units under “Policies and Guidance” at: www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs400/afs410

  14. Fly-By and Fly-Over Waypoints

  15. Fly-By or Fly-Over – Yes, It Is Important

  16. Can I Fly An RNAV Procedure? Answer is in AC 90-100A and online, updated table RNAV Q/T Routes (Terminal) RNAV 1 (ER) RNAV 2 Unit Substitution GNS 430 GNS 530 GNS/CNX 480* Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes *Needs T2 letter of acceptance

  17. Regardless Of The System, Remember That “Pilots may not substitute for the navigational aid providing lateral guidance for the final approach.” (AIM, pg 1-2-6)

  18. Typical Conventional Arrival

  19. RNAV Arrival • Not a conventional arrival • Computer generated waypoints • Mix of fly-over and fly-by

  20. WAAS System

  21. How WAAS Works

  22. WAAS Capabilities • Why WAAS? • Enhances en-route navigation performance over GPS alone • Enhances non-precision approach capability over GPS alone • Allows WAAS equipped users to fly more than 1,294 published LNAV/VNAV procedures to minimums as low as 300 feet • Allows WAAS equipped users to fly over 1,051 new LPV procedures • Can use GPS for an alternate (LNAV only) • Better than 99.99% availability of system • 200’ minimumWAAS specific approaches (LPV) • 1,051 LPV approaches published, with 300 new expected each year

  23. With WAAS, I can: • Skip the RAIM check! • Fly an LNAV/VNAV approach • Fly an LPV approach • Use GPS/WAAS entirely • …and I can file a GPS alternate • But using the LNAV minima line

  24. WAAS • TSO-C146 “Stand-Alone Airborne Nav Using GPS Augmented by WAAS) • TSO-C145 “Airborne Nav Sensors Using GPS Augmented by WAAS”

  25. Instrument Approach Update • NDBs being reduced • Limited funding for ILS • Expansion of LPVs • LPV minimums of 200’

  26. Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) • Flies like an ILS (but better!) • Minimums down to 200’ • Why isn’t it a precision approach? • What about the pilot test standards?

  27. Charting with LPV Minimum Line WAAS Channel Number WAAS Approach ID: W24A W: WAAS 24: Runway 24 A: 1st WAAS Approach To Rwy 24 Temperature Restriction Does Not Apply to WAAS Equipment LPV Minimum Line

  28. LPV Production Schedule • Currently, 1,051 LPV approaches (as of April 10, 2008) • Adding 300 this year, 400 in FY08, and 500 in FY09 and beyond • On the web: gps.faa.gov • Click GPS/WAAS Approaches button at bottom of page

  29. Standard Instrument Departure

  30. Here is what’s coming!

  31. Q-Routes

  32. T-Routes

  33. Coming Soon… • LP approaches - as low as 250” required obstacle clearance (ROC) • Helo point in space approaches

  34. Why All the Changes? • Ask anyone who regularly flies into O’Hare, JFK, ATL • Capacity • Safety • Oh, and money! • Seen any new airports under construction? • Heard about the anticipated number of VLJs?

  35. Nav Aid Cost • VOR • Install = $250,000 • 20-year life cycle cost = $1,100,000 • ILS • Install = $1,200,000 • 20-year life cycle cost = $2,700,000 • Neither figure considers cost of real estate

  36. Where is this leading? • GPS is biggest change to hit aviation since the jet engine! • Drawdown of VORs • 50% reduction of VORs projected by 2015 • Remainder (most) VORs to be removed by 2025 • NDBs are already being divested

  37. Efficient, Flexible Routing Vector Vector - - Free Free Streamlined Streamlined Arrivals Arrivals Departures Departures All All - - Weather Weather Approaches Approaches Performance-Based Navigation • Complete transition by 2025 • Consistent with ICAO global vision • Operational capability based on GPS and augmentations • Enhance safety, capacity, efficiency • Reduce costs

  38. Required Navigational Performance (RNP) • Major change in technical approach – not sensor specific • Complete “system” will be RNP certified • Aircraft, nav system, autopilot to provide containment and alerting • RNP 2 miles en route, 1 mile terminal, 0.3 for approach

  39. RNP 0.3 DME/DME NA

  40. Larry’s Forecast • Satellite-based navigation • More takeoff-direct routing • ILS-like accuracy en route throughout the NAS • Skeleton framework of VORs as mitigation for possible GPS jamming/obstruction • Until we work out a jam-proof system

  41. In The Future, You Will: • Have to intimately understand the workings of your GPS receiver (to fly IFR) • Incredibly capable, but it’s a computer! • Spend more time as a “systems operator” • You will either love it, or hate it, but it’s here to stay!

  42. Three Major FAA Planning Documents • Operational Evolution Plan • www.faa.gov/programs/OEP • Roadmap for Performance Based Navigation • www.faa.gov/ats/rnp • Next Generation Air Transport System

  43. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Plan Defines A System That Can Meet Demands For The 21st Century Trajectory-Based Operations Performance-Based Operations and Services Precision Navigation Weather Integration Network-Centric Information Sharing Surveillance Services Equivalent Visual Operations Super Density Operations Layered, Adaptive Security Capabilities

  44. Navigation Evolution Customer Council (NECC) • Council made up of government and industry members • Created by Director of Navigation Services to: • Implement the navigation evolution roadmap • Adjudication of roadmap comments • Develop roadmap updates • Liaison between policy-makers and the aviation community

  45. Contact me at: Larry.Ctr.Oliver@FAA.GOV (202)-385-4593