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FIREFIGHTING NOZZLES and FIRE HYDRAULICS. presented by: Task Force Tips / KK Products. FIREFIGHTING NOZZLES and FIRE HYDRAULICS. An overview of basic nozzle design and the production of effective fire streams. Today’s Fire Service. Providing more diverse services Less personnel

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firefighting nozzles and fire hydraulics
FIREFIGHTING NOZZLES and FIRE HYDRAULICS

presented by:

Task Force Tips / KK Products

firefighting nozzles and fire hydraulics2
FIREFIGHTING NOZZLES and FIRE HYDRAULICS

An overview of basic nozzle design and the production of effective fire streams.

today s fire service
Today’s Fire Service...
  • Providing more diverse services
  • Less personnel
  • Training demands increased
  • Fire streams training less frequent
  • Foam training considered costly
  • 10% of fires results in 90% of losses
  • Fire streams training is still needed
firefighting nozzles and fire hydraulics4
Hand Held Stream Evolution

Fixed & Selectable Flow Nozzles

Automatic Nozzles

Valve Design

Fire Ground Hydraulics

Nozzle Pressure

Shaping the Fire Stream

Fog Tooth Design

Smooth Bore vs. Combination

Fire vs. Water Flow

Achieving Maximum Flows

Nozzles & Foam

Master Stream Nozzles

FIREFIGHTING NOZZLES and FIRE HYDRAULICS
a fire stream is
A Fire Stream is...

A stream of water orother water-basedextinguishing agent, after it leaves the nozzle until it reaches the desired target

hand held stream evolution7
Hand Held Stream Evolution...

1700 - early 1800’s

  • Water moved from source to fire manually
  • No hose capabilities
  • No pumping capability and therefore no pressure
hand held stream evolution8
Hand Held Stream Evolution...

Early 1800’s

  • Hand pumps
  • Sewn leather or riveted hose
  • Very limited pressure capabilities
  • Appliances/nozzles of cast copper or brass
hand held stream evolution9
Hand Held Stream Evolution...

Late 1800’s

  • Cotton woven hose developed
  • More Power - The Age of Steam
  • Mechanical means for developing pressure not based on human power
  • Pressure now easily available
basic water moving capabilities of the fire pumper have not changed in 100 years
Basic Water Moving Capabilities of the Fire Pumper Have Not Changedin 100 Years!

750-1000 GPM

150-200 PSI Pressure easily created

Additional capacity has increased only as overall truck power has increased

hand held stream evolution11
Hand Held Stream Evolution...

1900’s

  • Large variety of nozzles, playpipes and appliances made, all based on fixed “hole size”
  • Problem of coordination between pump operator and nozzle operator
  • Limited to only one correctflow, calculated by pump operator
slide12
The purpose of any nozzle is to restrict flow to build pressure.This creates a usable velocity to project the water stream.