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  1. The Resurgence of Catholicism Looking at the Development of the Roman Catholic Church 1815-1963 Modern Church History

  2. The Impact of the French Revolution • Pius VII (1800-1823) • Napoleon • Chateaubriand Genie du Christianisme 1802 Modern Church History

  3. Ultramontanism • Pius IX (1846-1878) • A political reformer (at first) • 1854 Immaculate Conception of Mary • 1864 Syllabus of Errors • 1869 Vatican Council: absolute papal authority Modern Church History

  4. Garibaldi • Italian nationalism (Garibaldi) led to loss of papal states • Effect of de-secularising papal authority • Leo XIII (1878-1903) statesman • “Catholic Action” • 1891 Rerum novarum Modern Church History

  5. Catholicism in the USA • The effect of immigration • The “Catholic Irish” • A period of naturalization and Americanization • First Plenary Council Baltimore 1852 Modern Church History

  6. Pius X (1903-1914) • 1905 France formal separation of church and state. Church only legalised by 1920s. • Rise of modernism/ biblical criticism • 1907 Pascendi encyclical againstmodernism Modern Church History

  7. 20th Century Catholicism • October 2, 1928: Opus Dei, a worldwide organization of lay members . • February 11, 1929: The Lateran treaties are signed by Benito Mussolini and Cardinal Gasparri establishing the independent State of the Vatican City and resolving the Roman Question. • July 20, 1933: Concordat Between the Holy See and the German Reich. • September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland. Start of the Second World War. The Vatican declares neutrality. Modern Church History

  8. 1944: The German Army occupies Rome. Adolf Hitler proclaims he will respect Vatican neutrality. Rome is liberated by the Allies after only a few weeks of occupation. • 1950: The Assumption of Mary is defined as dogma. • January 20, 1961: John F. Kennedy is sworn in as the 35th president of the United States. He becomes the first Roman Catholic and youngest president to be elected. • October 11, 1962: Pope John XXIII opens the Second Ecumenical Vatican Council. The 21st ecumenical council of the Catholic church emphasized the universal call to Modern Church History

  9. Towards Vatican II • Throughout the 1950s, Roman Catholic theological and biblical studies had begun to sway away from the neo-scholasticism and biblical literalism. • This shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, and John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern human experience with Christian dogma, as well as others such as Yves Congar and Joseph Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) looked to what they saw as a more accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal ("resourcement"). Modern Church History

  10. Pope John XXIII • Pope John XXIII, when asked why the Council was needed, reportedly opening a window and saying, "I want to throw open the windows of the Church so that we can see out and the people can see in." He invited other Christian Churches to send observers to the Council. in nature. Modern Church History

  11. Vatican II: The Main Points • The Church • Liturgy • Scripture and divine revelation • The bishops Modern Church History

  12. John Paul II • 1970: Revision of the Roman Missal, following on gradual introduction of vernacular languages in celebration of Mass. • October 16, 1978: Pope John Paul II becomes the first non-Italian pope in 450 years; influential in overthrowing communism in Europe. • December 31, 1991: The Soviet Union is officially dissolved. Persecuted Church re-emerges out of hiding. • 1992: A Catechism of the Catholic Church is first printed in French. • 1994: Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, an Apostolic Letter upholding a prohibition against ordination of women to the priesthood, is promulgated by Pope John Paul II. Modern Church History

  13. 21st century Catholic Church • Criticism for its traditional teaching on such issues as birth control, abortion, and women in the priesthood. • Scandals of child abuse. • 2005: The death of PopeJohn Paul II. • September 11, 2001: Muslim suicide bombers of al-Qaeda crash two hijacked Boeing 767s on the World Trade Center. Catalyst of invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq. Simmering tensions between Christians and Muslims surface worldwide. • April 19, 2005: German-born Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is elected by the College of Cardinals as Pope Benedict XVI, thus becoming the first Pope elected during the 21st century and the 3rd millennium. Modern Church History