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  1. MateriaMedica Heat/Excitation Tissue State

  2. Excitation/Irritation Tissue State • Characterized by Exaggeration of Function • Tissues are in a state of excitation, irritation or over stimulation. Blood rushes to the area with classic symptoms of heat, redness, swelling and pain. • This is not necessarily inflammation as inflammation can have multiple underlying tissue state causes e.g Putrefaction. All excitation is inflammation but not all inflammation is a result of excitation.

  3. Primary Symptoms: • Heat, Swelling, Redness, Pain associated with immune overreaction and excess. • Mucosa & skin: red/pink (carmine) • Pulse: Elevated, beats towards surface of vessel; Rapid. • Tongue: Elongated, pointed, red, carmine, flame shaped. • Urine: Dark and concentrated

  4. Remedy Qualities • Remedies often have a sour taste. • Flavonoids (don’t influence taste), fruit acids and limonene (lemon oil) all reduce tissue irritation/excitation and together yield a sour taste. • Cyanogenic glycosides, mainly in the rose family also reduce tissue irritation by interfering with the Krebs cycle and reduce the energy level of the cell.

  5. Remedy Families Rose family: Rosaceae • Rosehips, Strawberry leaf, Hawthorne, Peach, Wild cherry bark Honeysuckle family: Caprifoliaceae • Elderflower and berry, Honeysuckle, Cramp bark Rhubarb Family: Polygonaceae • Yellow Dock, Rhubarb, Sheep sorrel, garden sorrel Citrus family: Rutaceae • Lemon, Lime Anomalous: Lavender, Linden, Yarrow, Lemon Balm, Blueberry and Bitter mints, eg. Skullcap.

  6. Rose (Rosa spp) • Taste/Smell: • Hips-Sour, sweet, cool astringent. • Petals-Sweet, Slightly bitter, aromatic • Tissue States: Excitation, relaxation • Energetics/Action: • cooling, drying, astringent • Parts used: • Hips, Petals most commonly used-most parts of the plant have been used. Seeds are toxic. • Constituents: • Tannins, flavonoids, fruit acids, (malic, citric and ascorbic) essential oils and anthocyanidins.

  7. Rose (2of 4) • Organ affinity: Emotions, Lungs, Cardiovascular, Digestion, Kidneys/Bladder, Sexual system, Muscular/Skeletal • Presentation: Delicate, sensitive children, children born by c-section, never have to fight their way out. • Specific Indications: Elongated, pointed, red/pink tongue with moisture or streamers down the sides indicating excess dampness.

  8. Rose (3 of 4) Characteristic uses : • Eyes: Farsightedness • Lymphatics: Red, irritated skin and mucosa with watery deposits or stagnation of the lymph of the upper body • Respiration: Sore throat, irritated cough; TB (traditional use) • Cardiovascular: Vascular anomalies (esp. in children); passive venous congestion; easy bruising, clotting, thrombosis; • Digestion: heat/irritation in intestine, constipation, damp mucous containing, unformed stools, chronic yeast infection. • Kidneys/bladder: Frequent urination, bedwetting • Sexual system: Vaginitis with bleeding and discharge; In TCM for loss of semen and to strengthen the kidneys.

  9. Rose (4) • Contraindications: • Seeds contain glucoside and are toxic. Rose hip tea can contain fine hairs that are irritating to the throat and mouth that cling to the seeds. Strain well. • Preparation & Dosage: • Hips in various preparations: Short decoction, capsules, tincture • Petals as infusion, 1-2 tsp to 8 oz water. 3x/day or as needed • Essential oil

  10. Rose • Folklore/Magical/: • Wild Rose was standard remedy for rabies by Romans. • Distribution/Habitat: • Widely distributed, common in wild but generally not in large stands in northwest. Cultivated are also useable. Be aware of pesticides. • This is the rose city, they grow well here

  11. Strawberry (Fragaria ssp.) • Taste/Smell: Sweet, cool and moist, mucilaginous, slightly astringent • Tissue States: Excitation • Energetics/Action: Cooling, refrigerant. • Parts used: Leaves • Constituents: Fruit acids, leucocoanthocyanin, Vit C, catechins (all cooling) tannins, volatile oils

  12. Strawberry (2) • Organ affinity: • Emotions, Head, Mouth, lungs, digestion, kidneys/bladder, Female organs, skin, thermoregulation • Presentation: • Swollen red, dry tongue, possibly with painful itching and swelling (can cause or cure) • Specific Indications: • Head: Red inflamed eyes, stye, • Teeth: Plaque, spongy gums, mouth ulcers, lack of saliva, no appetite. • Digestion: Diarrhea, obstinate dysentery (roots)

  13. Strawberry (3) Characteristic Uses: • Kidneys and Bladder: Bladder infections with alkaline urine. Scanty dark urine, painful sharp scalding. • Female: Menses: irregular, excessive bleeding, vaginal yeast infection with itch • Pregnancy: Morning sickness, prevent miscarriage • Postpartum: Night sweats • Skin: Eczema, psoriasis (internal and external), hives from overconsumption of season fruit (cause and cure) • Other: Fever, Gout, High Blood Pressure

  14. Strawberry (4) • Contraindications: Most likely plant of the rose family to cause allergies. • Preparation & Dosage: 1tsp of dried herb to 1 pint water, steep 20 min. • Distribution/Habitat: Found widely in scattered stands in Northwest.

  15. Hawthorne (Crataegus ssp) • Taste/Smell: Berries: sweet, sour astringent, Leaves: astringent and sweet, Flowers: putrid smell. • Tissue States: Excitation, Atrophy, Relaxation • Energetics /Action: Cooling, Sedating, Diuretic, tonic, Digestive, Cardiotonic, Antioxidant Astringent • Parts used: Berries, Flowers, Leaves • Constituents: Flavonoids, espRutinoligomericprocyanidins and numerous acids

  16. Hawthorne (2) • Organ affinity: Emotional, Respiratory, Heart/circulatory, Digestion • Presentation: Person is worse from excitement or exertion physical or mental, redness under the nose. Heartache, physical or emotional. Irritable and nervous. • Specific Indications: If skin of the palms or fingers is red, press and watch for blanching (skin stays white longer than normal). Characteristic uses: • Emotional: Can’t focus, restless, irritable, nervous; ADD

  17. Hawthorne (3) • Heart and Circulation: Angina, Degenerative conditions of heart • Hypertension: Opens coronary circulation. May reduce deposits and/or effects of arteriosclerosis • Cardiac arrhythmias: Particularly effective with extra systoles and acute tachycardia. • Fever: Weakness of myocardium after fever, flu etc. Also with excessive sweating after such events • Gray pallor showing possible heart attack • Pulse: rapid irregular, intermittent and small, feeble, deep.

  18. Hawthorne (4) • Digestion: • Food sits in stomach, ferments. Indigestion, heartburn constipation, atonic lower intestine • Nervous stomach • Other: • Allergies; • Inflammatory arthritis; • Low blood pressure; exhaustion from small movement.

  19. Hawthorne (5) • Contraindications: Can increase effectiveness of cardiac drugs like digitoxin, digoxin, and other cardiac glycosides. If taking heart medication concurrently with Hawthorne, should be monitored. • Preparation & Dosage: Overnight infusion of flowers-1 heaping tsp per cup, water decoction of berries 2-3x day or more Dry Berries 1:5 50% alcohol, 40% water, 10% Glycerine Fresh leaf/Flower 1:2 75 alcohol, 15% water 10% glycerin Dosage: MW doses or 20-60 drops 4x per day • Folklore/Magical: Story of Thomas the Rhymer, Tree of the Celts and the Faerie Folk • Distribution/Habitat-Widely distributed in northwest

  20. Wild Cherry (Prunusserotina) • Taste/Smell: Sweet, Bitter, Astringent, almond-like taste. • Tissue States: Excitation, Depression • Energetics/Action: Hot and cold, damp and dry. Astringent, Expectorant, Sedating. • Parts used: Bark • Constituents: Flavonoids, bitter cyanogens, tannins, bit of mucilage, resins and volatile oils

  21. Wild Cherry 2 of 4 • Organ affinity: Heart /Circulatory, Digestion, Lungs • Presentation/Specific Indications:People with tendency to red histaminic reactions; thin people with cold extremities and cool damp skin. Nervousness, recovering from debilitating illness. Reddish, slightly purple and yellow skin that blanches under pressure • Characteristic uses: • Respiration: Suppresses the cough reflex; Calms irritated, histaminic, excited coughs; treats old tired coughs that linger after infection is passed; pleurisy, bronchitis; pneumonia; Accumulation of hardened mucus. • Cardiovascular: Pulse weak and erratic, Cardiac irregularities in bronchitis, anemia or nervousness. Heart palpitations, high blood pressure; “Heart fire blazing” in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  22. Wild Cherry 3 0f 4 • Characteristic uses: • Digestion: Nervous irritation of GI tract; Food allergies, celiac disease; Poor digestion from weakness after illness. Irritable hemorrhoids. • Skin-Shingles; Herpes - when eruption is on tongue or in mouth. Esp with general redness not vesicles. With vesicles try Ranunculousbulbosus. • Thermoregulation- Fever • Other: Lack of muscular tone after illness, nervous irritability. • Works well in formulations

  23. Cherry 4 of 4 • Contraindications: Some say use lower dose for shorter periods due to cyanogens, others say look to the extensive historical record of safety even with children and use as it has been used. • When to Harvest: Opinions vary; Collect in spring and fall unlike some barks that are collected in winter. • Preparation &Dosage: • Decoction: 1 tsp dried bark per cup of water • Dry Bark Tincture: 1:2 50% alc. 10-40d 4x per day (first soak in water overnight to remove excess cyanogens) • Distribution/Habitat- present in the wild in Northwest.

  24. Peach (Prunuspersica) • Taste/Smell: Sour, bitter, sweet; mucilagenous. • Tissue States: Excitation, Atrophy • Energetics/Action: Cooling, moistening, sedating, slightly demulcent. • Parts used: Twigs, bark, leaves, kernal, even fruit • Constituents: Fruit acids, cyanogens

  25. Peach (2 of 4) • Organ affinity: Emotions, Respiration, Digestion, Skin • Specific Indication: Carmine, flame shaped, red and dry tongue. (If moist think rose or linden, if harshly dry and burnished think marshmallow for dryness causing heat). Allergic, hot, irritated, jangled nerves, fair skin people, insomnia, overstimulation. • Characteristic uses: • Complexion-Fair skinned, irritation from heat, allergies, immune excess. • Mind/Emotion-Nervousness, overstimulation, insomnia • Respiration-Allergies, esp eyes, nose, • Cough with irritation and dryness, eg. whooping cough, chronic bronchitis.

  26. Peach (3 of 4) • Digestion: Gastritis, dyspepsia, diarrhea, nausea. Vomiting during pregnancy. • Fever: With heat and dryness • Other: • Hives, rashes, allergic skin; Mild pain reliever. • Cyanide disrupts krebs cycle in mitochondria of cells to decrease activity of the cell and associated tissue • Peach leaf tea is used in some Native American groups to precede bad news and discipline children.

  27. Peach (4 of 4) • Contraindications: Large amounts of cyanide are poisonous, so use only small doses of peach preparation that have characteristic bitter almond taste and smell of cyanide. • Preparation & Dosage: • Cold infusion of bark, twigs and leaves 1 tsp per 8oz water. 3x day • Tincture : 1:5 (dry herb) tincture 40% alcohol, 1-10 drops of tincture 1-3x daily. • Distribution/Habitat- Cultivated. Portland is within its northern range though mostly it thrives under cultivation further south.

  28. Cramp Bark (Viburnumopulus, V. trilobum) • Taste/Smell: sour, acrid. There are few plants that combine these flavors to target irritation and tension. • Tissue States: irritation, tension • Energetics/Action: antispasmodic, astringent, cooling, nervine, carminative, anti-inflammatory. • Parts used: bark • Constituents: hydroquinones, coumarins, tannins

  29. Cramp bark (2) • Organ affinity: Female reproductive, Nervous, Digestion, Kidneys, Respiratory, Muscular/Skeletal system. • Specific Indications: cramp-like, spasmodic pains, pain recurring at intervals, spasmodic and congestive conditions especially of the female genitourinary tract. • Characteristic uses: • Mind, senses, nerves, emotions, personality • Nervous tension • restores sympathetic and parasympathetic balance

  30. Cramp bark (3) Female • Uterine cramps • Menses; bearing down pains precede the period; late period, scanty, with cramps; heaviness, aching in ovaries, sacrum, down the back and thighs. • Irritation from IUD. • Pregnancy: cramping during, repeated early miscarriage • Labor - spasmodic contractions and hemorrhage during labor and post partum. • Post-partum pains

  31. Cramp bark (4) • Respiratory system: • Acute spasms of bronchitis, whooping cough, and asthma. • Digestive System: • Painful intestinal cramping • Sudden abdominal cramps and colic • Enteritis, colitis, dysentery • Nervous indigestion, flatulence • Kidneys and Bladder: • Spasmodic stricture in urinary tract infections • Enuresis, cystitis

  32. Cramp bark (5) • Other: • Crampy back pains, sore nape of neck or sacrum. • Upper and lower back issues (old whiplash stuff) • Cramping and fever • Neuralgia • Preparation & Dosage • Fresh or dry bark tincture. • 1:5 dry tincture 50% alc. 20-75 drops 1-4 x/day. • Distribution/Habitat • Viburnumopulus is native to Europe; V. trilobum is native to north America; V. edule in Northwest.

  33. Elder (Sambucusssp) • Taste/Smell: Sweet, Sour, Slightly Acrid, • Tissue States: • Dry flowers: Excitation, Tension, Depression • Berries: Excitation, Tension, Atrophy • Energetics/Action: Moist, cooling, sedating, stimulating diaphoretic, mild laxative, diuretic. Elder opens all tubes of body: Skin, lungs, colon, kidneys, blood vessels , increasing oxygenation and removal of waste • Parts used: Flowers, Berries • Constituents: • Berries: Flavonoids, Cyanogens, some volatile oils, • Flowers: Coumarins, Bitters, flavonoids, fatty acid rich volatile oils, mucilage, sterols and tannins

  34. Elder 2 • Organ affinity: Psychological, Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Thermoregulation, Skin, Immune, Kidneys, Lymph. • Presentation/Specific Indications: • In Infants indicated by blue pale coloring across the nose, and red dry irritated skin on cheeks. It lubricates skin, improves respiration. Great children’s remedy. • Full bodied persons, esp. women with red blue marbling of flesh on arms and legs with colic, lower back pain and water retention, puffy skin. • Older persons w/ edema, blue swollen ankles • Pale, blue, swelling (stagnant blood and fluids) and/or dry, red, skin. • Characteristic uses: Respiratory: • Postnasal drip. Chronic sinusitis. • Wakes at night, can’t breathe, turns blue • Spasmodic cough, croup

  35. Elder 3 • Digestion: Intestinal colic, constipation • Skin: Eczema, weeping eczema, purplish, mottled skin, appears swollen • Thermoregulation: Fever, Flu, Other viral infections eg West Nile. Great for immunity esp. during cold season. Flowers stimulate sweating to break fever. Warm infusion is best in this application. Classic formula is Elder, Peppermint and Yarrow. • Kidneys: Increases flow through kidneys. Has been used in rheumatic conditions where a diuretic is helpful. • Other : Has been used externally and internally for sprains esp. with classic elder coloring: purple, swollen, little reddish, white esp wrists and ankles. Has anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-viral compounds.

  36. Elder 4 • Contraindicaitons: Entire plant is somewhat toxic Large doses are cathartic, may cause nausea, tachycardia, diarrhea. Red Elder is considered more toxic and not used in herbal medicine, though some sources consider it edible in the northwest • When to Harvest: • Flowers: Midsummer to late summer (Red flowers earlier and isn’t used) • Berries: later summer, early fall • You can often find flowers and berries on same plant at same time • Preparation & Dosage: • Dried Flowers: Infusion 2-4 oz in 3 cups water. Divide to 3x per day • Dried Berries: up to 3 oz per 3 cups-divide into 3 divided doses

  37. Elder 5 • Tincture Fresh Berries 1:2 100% alc., 20-60d 3x day • Tincture Fresh Flowers 1:2 75 % alc. 25 % h2o, 20-60d 3x day • Folklore/Magical: One of 2 or 3 primal remedies of European herbal tradition. King Charlemagne decreed that an Elder be planted in every yard to be a ‘medicine cabinet’ . Called Little Elder Mother, associations to the queen of the underworld. It was once believed to be dangerous to fall asleep under an elder due to danger of being taken to the underworld , with which this tree is often associated. According to some Christ was crucified on Elder, and Judas hanged himself on an Elder tree. • Distribution/Habitat-Widely distributed in Northwest

  38. Yellow Dock (Rumexcrispus) • Taste/Smell: sour, astringent, bitter • Tissue States: irritation/excitation, relaxation, stagnation • Energetics/Action: cooling (sour), somewhat astringent (binding, drying), alterative (bitter), hepatice, cholagogue, cleansing, laxative. Helps downward movement in digestive tract. • Parts used: root • Constituents: small amounts of anthraquinone, tannins, oxalates, glycosides

  39. Yellow Dock (2) • Organ affinity: Digestive system, liver, Kidneys and Bladder, head and respiratory system. • Presentation: • Yellow around eyes, nose, and mouth with reddish, often dry cheeks (stagnation of digestive tract). • Elongated pointed red tongue with red on the sides, tip, or middle, often with thrush-like coating on back or sides. • Overabundance of saliva showing digestive over activity, excessive appetite, and excessive Hydrochloric acid. • Slow digestion; food sits in stomach like a brick, in the colon. Characteristic Usage: • Digestive System: Digestive Normalizer.

  40. Yellow Dock (3) • Excess stomach secretions and hydrochloric acid; gastric reflux due to heat; red tipped tongue, excess salivation and big appetite. Compared to reflux due to cold digestion/hypochlorhydria/gastric hypofunctioning (pale tongue, thick tongue coating, lack of appetite, food sits in stomach, feels like a brick, and ferments). See bitters. • Diarrhea, dysentary, colitis. • Diarrhea, especially in the morning; exhaustive, scanty, bloody, offensive, colicky pains before and after passage, sinking sensation in the stomach. • Pain in lower back caused by constipation (person more aware of pain than of constipation). • Hemorrhoids, with bleeding, itching, pain, poor expulsion of stool.

  41. Yellow Dock (4) • Liver • Torpid or sluggish liver, gallstones • Skin • Red, damp, skin conditions including eczema, psoriasis and acne. • Chronic erysipelas, or inflamed puffiness of the skin (dry root decoction). • Female • Poor iron absorption/anemia, amenorrhea, Pregnancy: anemia (with nettles). • Head: • Nursing sore mouth with ulcerated mucosa; thrush • Tongue elongated, pointed, red with patches of white on the back or in mouth, heavy thrush-like coating

  42. Yellow Dock (5) • Contraindications: use cautiously if person has history of oxalate kidney stones. • Preparation & Dosage: Root is ideally collected after going to seed in summer or fall and used by decoction or tincture. Usual dose of tincture 5-30 drops (Fyfe), or 20-40drops twice per day (Gagnon). Curly dock rather than water dock should be used. • Distribution/Habitat: Grows widely throughout North America. Mostly replaced in Northwest by Rumexobtusifolia.

  43. Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) • Taste/Smell: sour, slightly sweet, aromatic lemony smell • Tissue States: heat/excitation • Energetics/Action: cooling, calming, nervine, sedative, mild anti-depressant, mild anti-spasmodic, carminative, Diaphoretic, antiviral. • Parts used: flowering herb • Constituents: (major constituents): several flavonoids, triterpenes, and essential oils (including citronella).

  44. Lemon Balm (2) • Organ affinity: nervous system, respiratory system, heart, digestive system, thyroid (hyper), thermoregulation/fever • Tongue/Pulse: Rapid and or superficial pulse, and an elongated pointed, red tongue. • Characteristic uses: • Nervous system: • Sympathetic excess, hyper-adrenalism, • Nervousness, depression, anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia. • Debility and weakness of nervous origin • Nervous headache (cold infusion)

  45. Lemon Balm (3) • Respiratory System: • Antiviral , colds, coughs • Thyroid and Heart • Hyperthyroidism, anxiety, palpitations, headaches, irritability. • Atrial fibrillation, heart palpitations, high blood pressure associated with anxiety and hyperthyroidism. • Rapid or superficial pulse. • Digestive System: • Dyspepsia, upset stomach, flatulence. • Nervous indigestion (hot tea after meal) • Nausea and vomiting.

  46. Lemon Balm (4) • Skin: • Burns, blisters, herpes/cold sores (very useful), stings, burning sensations. • Sweaty palms (hyperthyroid/hyper adrenalism). • Fevers: • Recent colds and fevers (hot tea to promote perspiration). • Acute febrile conditions in children • Depression following exhaustive fevers and long irritation of the digestion.

  47. Lemon Balm 5 • Contraindications: hypothyroidism, pregnancy • When to Harvest: summer • Preparation and Dosage: fresh tincture 1:2 100% alcohol. Fresh tincture preferred. 20-60d 3-5/day or as needed • Distribution: Widely distributed in Northwest (wild and cultivated).

  48. Linden Flower, Tiliaamericana, T.ssp. • Taste/Smell: sweet, slightly astringent. • Tissue state: heat/excitation, atrophy, relaxation • Energetics/Action: moist, cool, diaphoretic, diuretic, hypotensive, antispasmodic, sedative, nervine, antidepressant. • Parts used: flower and leaves • Constituents: flavonoids, tannins, mucilage, sterols, steroidal saponins, volatile oils.

  49. Linden Flower (2) • Organ affinity: nervous system, thermoregulation, respiratory system, digestive system, cardiovascular system. • Characteristic uses • Nervous system, mind, emotions: • Nervousness, restlessness, hyperactivity, insomnia, hypertension. • Panic attacks, anxiety • Nervous headache, migraine, dizziness, neuralgia, convulsions (children). • Respiratory system: • Influenza, fever, colds, coughs.

  50. Linden Flower (3) : • Digestion: • Indigestion, nervous vomiting, painful digestion, colic, diarrhea. • Cardiovascular & Blood: • Heart palpitations, cramps • Arteriosclerosis and hypertension associated with nervous tension. • Other: If client is on cortisone this remedy is indicated.