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Where we are so far…. Know the structure and function of the cardiovascular system:

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Where we are so far
Where we are so far…

Know the structure and function of the cardiovascular system:

  • Structure of the cardiovascular system: heart (atria, ventricles, bicuspid valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve, aorta, vena cava – superior and inferior, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery); blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, venuoles)

  • Function of the cardiovascular system: delivery of oxygen and nutrients; removal of waste products; thermoregulation (vasodilation and vasoconstriction of vessels); function of blood (oxygen transport, clotting, fighting infection)

Where we are so far

Thefunctionof the Cardiovascular system

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General function

  • The main function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove the waste products of metabolism.

  • Each part of system has a specific function in helping to do this.

  • Heart

    • Pump – It is designed to push blood out through the arteries.

      • One ventricle pumps blood to the lungs to get oxygen

      • The other pumps blood to the body to deliver Oxygen and nutrients

  • Blood vessels

    • Designed to carry the blood. They are hollow, and vary according to their purpose.

      • For example, arteries have thick muscular walls so that they can take the blood at high pressure from the heart, and squeeze it along to the capillaries

  • Blood

    • Has a number of functions

      • Red blood cells and their haemoglobin attract Oxygen, so it can be carried around in the blood

      • White blood cells fight infection

      • Platelets help with clotting if we are injured.

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Delivery of Oxygen and Nutrients

  • The key function of the CV system.

    • It is essential in football because....

  • Achieves this with the three elements working together.

    • The heart pumps the blood into the blood vessels

    • The blood vessels carry the blood to the body’s tissues

    • The blood carries a number of things dissolved in it.

      • For example:

        • Oxygen is carried by the haemoglobin in the red blood cells

        • Blood also carries nutrients that it has absorbed in the intestines to the working muscles

          • Why is this important to success in football?

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Removal of Waste products

The other key function of the CV system….

  • Again all three elements work together to allow this to happen

    • The force of the pump from the heart helps to get the blood back

    • The blood vessels, particularly the veins use their proximity to muscles and their valves to squeeze the blood back to the heart, without any back flow

    • The blood carries the Carbon dioxide back to the lungs to be excreted

      • It also carries other waste from the metabolic process, such as water and lactic acid. This is taken back to the kidneys and liver so we can process it and excrete it.

        • Why is this essential to success in sport, and football in particular?

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  • The ability to maintain body temperature within certain boundaries.


  • Effectively during exercise, and when we are hot, the blood vessels redirect the blood closer to the surface, so that the hear can evaporate.

    • This is why we go red when we exercise.

On the other hand…


When we are cold, the blood vessels direct the blood away from the surface of the body, to keep our core temperature stable.

- This is why we appear more pale/blue when cold

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Sweat gland


If the body gets too hot, capillaries near the surface of the skin widen. Blood is diverted to the skin where the heat can easily radiate away. This is called vasodilation.

Water from the blood is excreted as sweat to cool the body.

Thermoregulation explained further…

  • If the body gets too cold, capillaries near the surface of the skin get narrower. Blood is diverted away from the skin to limit heat loss. This is called vasoconstriction.

  • Sweating stops.

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The effects of Training

  • Long term effects of exercise (3-5x 20 minsa week):

  • Decreased HR

  • Increased Stroke Volume

  • Heart muscles become bigger (HYPERTROPHY)

  • Fall in blood pressure

  • Increase in Red blood cell count

  • Increased size in blood vessels

  • Increased blood volume

  • Short term effects of exercise on the CV system (10 mins):

  • Increased HR

  • Increased Stroke Volume

  • Increased Cardiac Output

  • Redistribution of blood to the working muscles and away from other organs

  • Blood vessels in the skin dilate

  • Increased blood pressure