deep sea neutrino telescopes n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Deep-sea neutrino telescopes PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Deep-sea neutrino telescopes

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

Deep-sea neutrino telescopes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 104 Views
  • Uploaded on

Deep-sea neutrino telescopes. Prof. dr. Maarten de Jong Nikhef / Leiden University. contents. Neutrino astronomy Antares prototype KM3NeT next generation neutrino telescope issues, ideas. Neutrino astronomy. p. n. g. neutrinos. Why neutrinos? no absorption no bending.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Deep-sea neutrino telescopes' - albin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
deep sea neutrino telescopes

Deep-sea neutrino telescopes

Prof. dr. Maarten de Jong

Nikhef / Leiden University

contents
contents
  • Neutrino astronomy
  • Antares
    • prototype
  • KM3NeT
    • next generation neutrino telescope
  • issues, ideas
slide3

Neutrino astronomy

p

n

g

neutrinos

  • Why neutrinos?
  • no absorption
  • no bending
  • Scientific motivation:
  • origin cosmic rays
  • creation& composition relativistic jets
  • mechanism cosmic particle acceleration
  • composition dark matter

neutrino telescope

slide4

1960 Markov’s idea:

Use sea water as target/detector

  • range of muon
  • detect Cherenkov light
  • transparency of water
slide5

How?

wavefront

neutrino

muon

1

2

3

4

5

~100 m

interaction

~few km

muon travels with speed of light (300,000 km/s) →ns (10 cm) @ km

slide6

General layout

light

detection

real-time event

distribution

3-5 km

800 m

1-2 km

>1000 km

50-100 km

shore station

transmission

of (all) data

data

filter

slide7

Antares

prototype neutrino telescope

  • ‒ 100 persons
  • ‒ 25 M€
  • 1997‒2005
    • R&D
    • site explorations
    • measurements of water properties
  • 2005‒2008
    • construction-operation
  • 2008‒2017
    • operation
antares
Antares

12 lines

~2.5 km

500 m

250 Atm.

~200x200 m2

25 storeys / line

detection unit
Detection unit

Optical beacon

timing calibration

10” PMT

photon detection

Electronics

readout

titanium frame

mechanical support

Hydrophone

acoustic positioning

~1 m

slide10

Dutch industry

Gb/s transceiver

passive cooling

DC–DC converter

deep sea network
deep-sea network

connector (3)

penetrator (2)

container

CPU

FPGA

e/o

PMT

100 Mb/s

optical fiber (21)

5x15 m

penetrator (3)

container

Ethernet

switch

1 Gb/s

e/o

e/o

5‒25x15 m

junction

box

container

DWDM

filter

optical fiber (4)

(40)

1 km

40 km

wet-matable connector (2)

data flow
data flow

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

time

off-shore

on shore

Ethernet switch

data filter

data filter

data filter

data flow1
data flow

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

time

off-shore

on shore

Ethernet switch

data filter

data filter

data filter

data flow2
data flow

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

time

off-shore

on shore

Ethernet switch

data filter

data filter

data filter

antares1
Antares
  • deep-sea infrastructure
    • 1 km3
      • 900 PMTs, hydrophones, ADCP, seismometers, etc.
      • 10 kW, 1 GB/s
    • one main electro-optical cable
      • 50 km, AC, 1 cupper conductor + sea return
    • network
      • active multiplexing locally (Ethernet standard)
      • passive multiplexing based on DWDM technology
        • low number of channels for reliability of offshore transceiver (l stability)
    • operation
      • 10 years (some maintenance’
      • data transmission signal recovery by amplification
km3net
KM3NeT
  • 2005‒2008
    • design study
  • 2008‒2012
    • preparatory phase
  • 2013‒2017
    • construction

definitive neutrino telescope

  • ‒ 300 persons
  • ‒ 200 M€
slide17

Optical module (camera)

31 x 3” PMT

Electronics inside

slide18

deep-sea network

optical modulator

lj+1

  • integrate timing system (GHz = ns)
  • minimise offshore electronics

penetrator (1)

receiver

lj

receiver

laser

wet-matable connector (1)

DWDM

laser

shore station

DWDM

slide19

Storey

Frame

Mechanical cable storage

Data cable storage

Mechanical cable connection

6 m

Optical module

Mechanical holder

1 Digital Optical Module = Dom

2 Dom’s on 1 bar = Dom-bar

20 Dom-bar’s on 1 tower = Dom tower

Needs new deployment technique

slide21

Earth & Sea sciences

short lived (rare) events

dominate deep-sea life

permanent observatory

France

Temperature

Bioluminescence

sudden

Eddie currents

food supply

time profile

observatory

slide22

KM3NeT

  • deep-sea infrastructure
    • 10 km3
      • >100,000 PMTs, hydrophones, ACDP, seismometers, etc.
      • <100 kW, 100 GB/s
    • two main electro-optical cables
      • 100 km, DC, 1 cupper conductor + sea return
    • network
      • PON, point-to-point + amplification
      • new Ethernet standard
        • Precision-Time-Protocol (”White Rabbit”)
    • operation
      • 10 years without maintenance
deep sea infrastructure
Deep-sea infrastructure
  • materials
    • containers (glass, Ti, Al)
  • mechanics
    • drag, deployment, etc.
  • cables
    • dry versus oil-filled
    • little experience with vertical orientation
  • wet-matable connectors
    • expensive (combined fiber and cupper wires)
    • bulky (problems with handling)
  • penetrators
    • source of single-point-failures (error propagation)
data taking processing
data taking & processing
  • network
    • high-bandwidth & long haul
      • integration of data transmission & timing (PTP)
    • (real-time) data distribution
      • monitoring
      • archival
      • offline analysis (astronomy, etc.)
    • external triggers
      • satellites, other infrastructures
  • computing
    • (real-time) data processing
      • algorithms (reduction of complexity & parallelization of problem)
      • implementation (state-of-the-art OO-programming)
      • hardware (multi-core, GPUs)
fiber technology
Fiber technology
  • data transmission
    • laser/[A]PD
      • flexible (2 x transceiver = point-to-point link)
      • active feedback loop (intrinsically instable power, l)
      • non-negligible electrical power consumption
    • modulators
      • wavelength, phase, intensity, polarization
      • very low power
      • reliable
    • amplification
      • long-haul communication
  • Energy transmission
    • ?
  • sensor
    • e.g. Bragg reflectrometer as deep-sea hydrophones
      • sensitivity
  • low weight…