debate is all about arguing betweenaffirmative/government team and negative/opposition team upon a motion. • Affirmative support the motion • Negative deny the motion
MOTION MOTION is the topic to be debated. It should be debatable and impartial. (THBT=This House Believes That…) TH would legalize gambling TH would support euthanasia THBT we should be free from terrorists
THE ORDER OF SPEAKERS • The first affirmative 7 minutes • The first negative 7 minutes • The second affirmative 7 minutes • The second negative 7 minutes • The third affirmative 7 minutes • The third negative 7 minutes • The negative reply 5 minutes • The affirmative reply 5 minutes
ROLE OF SPEAKERS • 1st speaker of affirmative background, definition, theme line, team split, argument, sum-up. • 1st speaker of negative Accept or refuse the affirmative’s definition, background, TL, TS, rebuttal, argument, sum-up. • 2nd speaker of affirmative • 2nd speaker of negative • 3rd speaker of affirmative • 3rd speaker of negative Rebut, rebuild, bulk of case, sum-up Rebut, rebuild, sum-up
FLOW OF SPEAKERS NEGATIVE 1st Speaker 2nd Speaker 3rd Speaker Reply Speaker AFFIRMATIVE 1st Speaker 2nd Speaker 3rd Speaker Reply Speaker
FURTHER EXPLANATION • BACKGROUND to establish framework. • DEFINITION straight motion to be debated literally, current issue. TH Would Enhance GM Crops. linkable motion not to be debated literally. That militaristic flavor is needed to promote stability.
THEME LINE Theme line is the underlying reason which answers the big question “WHY” one side of the house supports or opposes a motion. Theme line is what a team needs to prove, or the so-called burden of proof. It is also the main reason why a team attacks the opponent’s case.
TEAM SPLIT A set of arguments is called a case. It is very impossible to deliver the whole arguments by only a speaker, thus, those arguments should be distributed fairly to the first and second speaker. This is aimed to avoid overlapping job of carrying out particular arguments. It is more preferable to state the team split explicitly.
ARGUMENT / SPLIT • Argument is the fragment of thought to support the theme line. They are usually abbreviated as AREL. • ASSERTION Assertion is a statement which shows one’s stance. • REASONING Reasoning is the way of explaining and elaborating assertion to be comprehensible and logical. • EXAMPLES People will not that easily believe in something unless there is fact or data prove it. Therefore, proof, evidence, example and data are very significance in upholding an argument. • LINK BACK An argument sometimes can go nowhere if it is not known what its relevance with the theme line is. Link back to theme line can bridge the long way from argument and theme line itself.
REBUTTAL • To win a debate, debaters not only need to build a strong case but they also have to attack their opponent’s arguments and provide strong defense from any attacks. • Global Rebuttal: It is an attack against the main core of the opponent’s case, the theme line. • Detailed Rebuttal: It is an attack towards each argument or example. It will not deteriorate the whole case, but at least mess up the opponent’s image. • A case is a forest, it is more effective to focus on the forest as a whole rather than the trees. To be remembered, the trees, however, are the elements of the forest.
Rebuild own’s case • Case Enhancement is the part of reply speech showing how important the proposal is. For negative, it can show how essential the denial is. Enhancing the case means talking about our own case but in a different way. It can be in the form of a story, analogy or joke. The aim is to give a clearer description to the audience. • Comparison In showing how good one’s case is and how bad the opposition may have can be accomplished by comparing both cases.
Definitional Challenge (DC) Definitional Challenge is done unless the affirmative provides a definition which violates the principle of defining, that is avoiding truism, tautology, squirreling, and time and place setting. • Reject the affirmative’s definition. • Provide a new definition and a set of new case. • Rebut with even-if rebuttals. • Repetition of definition.
SPEAKER STYLE • Language. Fluency and clarity in speaking help debater transferring what he believes to his audience. It is not as simple as what it looks like because there are many things to consider, such as how to make our speech comprehensible. (spontaneity, loudness, etc) • Eye Contact • Gesture / Paralanguage • Stance • Humor
Thenature of debate – changing and dynamic – a debater should up date himself by accessing any kinds of information. www.debate.uvm.eduwww.debatabase.orghttp://www.geocities.com/nyuparli/novice_edwww.debating.net