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Five Chemical Alternatives Assessment Study. Liz Harriman Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute. Overview. TURI Mission 5 Chemicals Alternatives Assessment Study – Overview Study Process Chemical Uses Alternatives for Selected Uses. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute.

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five chemical alternatives assessment study

Five Chemical Alternatives Assessment Study

Liz Harriman

Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute

  • TURI Mission
  • 5 Chemicals Alternatives Assessment Study – Overview
  • Study Process
  • Chemical Uses
  • Alternatives for Selected Uses
massachusetts toxics use reduction institute
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute
  • MA Toxics Use Reduction Act 1989
  • Use Reporting
  • TUR Planning
  • Manufacturers and service industries
    • 10 employee and 10,000/25,000 lb threshold, except PBTs
  • TURA agencies: TURI, Office of Technical Assistance, and DEP
massachusetts toxics use reduction institute4
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute
  • Mission:
    • Research, test and promote alternatives to toxic chemicals used in Massachusetts industries and communities
    • Provide resources and tools for a safer place to live and work
    • Promote economic competitiveness
  • Via research, training, technical support, networks, lab testing and information
turi 5 chemicals alternatives assessment study
TURI 5 Chemicals Alternatives Assessment Study
  • The Commonwealth of Mass. has requested that TURI assess the feasibility of adopting alternatives to 5 chemicals:
    • Lead
    • Formaldehyde
    • Perchloroethylene
    • Hexavalent chromium
    • di-(2 ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)
  • Final report due to legislature June 30, 2006
legislative request
Legislative Request
  • For each substance:
    • Describe the significant uses in MA
      • Manufacturing
      • Products
    • Identify possible alternatives, proven and emergent, for selected uses
  • For each alternative chemical or technology, assess their potential to serve as substitutes for specific applications:
    • Technical feasibility
    • Economic feasibility
    • Environmental and occupational health & safety evaluation
legislative request7
Legislative Request
  • Economic Analysis
    • Study economic opportunities and impact on employment level and economic competitiveness of the Commonwealth as a result of adopting substitutes
      • The information available to us for specific alternatives is limited and often varies significantly by facility and application
      • Undertake survey of experts to discuss major factors influencing economic opportunities and impacts
turi goals
TURI goals
  • Conduct an objective and scientific alternatives assessment
  • Be transparent and open
  • Get input from major stakeholders in Massachusetts
  • Produce results that will help companies and consumers make better decisions
turi goals9
TURI goals
  • Results will not
    • Advocate or state preference for any particular alternatives
    • Recommend bans or phase-outs of any chemicals or any uses of chemicals
how does the study relate to tura
How does the study relate to TURA?
  • Options Assessment
    • TUR Planners and the TURA Program have 15 years of experience researching, investigating and developing alternatives to the use of toxic chemicals
  • Methods for Assessment
    • TURI and UMass Lowell have researched and developed alternatives assessment methodologies
    • still striving to outline a practical, efficient, and sufficiently accurate tool for TUR Planners to assist in decision making
how does the study relate to tura11
How does the study relate to TURA?
  • TUR in 2006 increasingly focuses on materials substitution
    • Economic competitiveness tied to:
      • International materials restrictions
      • Customer requirements
    • Elimination goals for PBTs
    • Much of the “low hanging fruit” has been picked
    • Consumer focus on toxics in products, body burden studies
setting priorities
Setting Priorities
  • Schedule and Budget require assessing a subset of chemical uses and alternatives
  • Focus on uses and alternatives where assessment results will be of most value
  • Stakeholder input used to select high priority uses and alternatives
5 chemical alternatives assessment study process overview
5 Chemical Alternatives Assessment Study Process Overview

Phase I

Chemical Uses

Select Priorities and Carry out Assessments

Phase II

Alternatives ID

Phase III

Alternatives Assessment

Phase IV

Prepare Report

Phase V



identify chemical uses
Identify Chemical Uses





Hexavalent Chromium

perchloroethylene use
Perchloroethylene Use
  • Dry cleaning
  • Automotive aerosols
    • Brake, engine, tire
  • Metal cleaning/degreasing
  • Chemical maskant formulations
  • Chemical intermediate (refrigerant mfr)
  • Minor/historical uses:
    • Paint strippers, adhesives, inks, de-inking fluids, upholstery & carpet cleaners, sealants, metal polish, lube oils
formaldehyde uses adhesives resins
Formaldehyde Uses – Adhesives/Resins
  • Urea- Formaldehyde
    • particleboard, medium-density fiberboard, hardwood plywood and waferboard- Interior, non-structural applications
  • Phenol- Formaldehyde
    • plywood, softwood, oriented strand board, hardboard, molded wood, particleboard, most commonly used for exterior waterproof applications
  • Melamine-Formaldehyde
    • decorative surface laminants, moisture resistant panels, cabinetry, dishware
  • Decorative laminants (plastics, computer monitors)
  • Insulation
  • Glass fiber roofing mats
  • Paper products (wallpaper, wet strength additives)
  • Paint
formaldehyde uses cont
Formaldehyde Uses (cont.)
  • Permanent press textile coatings
  • Flame retardant textile coatings (cross-linking agent)
  • Electroless copper
  • Disinfectant/Sterilant
  • Preservative for
    • Tissue Preservation
    • Embalming
    • Cosmetics/Personal Care (nail finish, hardener)
    • Cleaning Products
major dehp uses
Major DEHP Uses
  • Plasticizer in PVC
    • Medical Devices
      • Sheet Uses (e.g., Blood Bags)
      • Tubing (e.g., IV tubing)
    • Resilient Flooring
    • Vinyl Wall Coverings
    • Toys, footwear, vinyl shower curtains
    • Food Packaging Films
    • Upholstery, textile coatings
    • Wire and Cable coatings
dehp uses
  • Al Foil Coating/Laminate
  • Paper Coating
  • Extrudable Molds and Profiles
  • Printing Inks
  • Paints/Lacquers
  • Adhesives/Coatings
  • Minor uses
    • Vacuum pump oil, Roofing, Cosmetics, Pesticides, Ceramics
chromium and compounds use 2003 ma tura data
Chromium and Compounds Use*2003 MA TURA Data

*Chromium and compounds reporting category includes Cr+6

major hexavalent chromium uses
Major Hexavalent Chromium Uses
  • Alloys (Welding, Grinding, etc.)
    • Steel Alloys (tool steel and stainless steel)
    • Non-ferrous alloys (Cr-Ni, Co-Cr, Cr-Mo)
    • Superalloys
    • Cast iron alloys
  • Electroplating
    • Hard chrome electroplating
    • Decorative chrome electroplating
    • Black chromium electroplating
major hexavalent chromium uses25
Major Hexavalent Chromium Uses
  • Coatings
    • Chromate conversion anti-corrosion coatings
    • Metal films
    • Adhesion coatings
  • Colorants/Pigments - for paints, inks, plastics (yellow, orange, red, green)
  • Dyes -Textile dyes and mordant/fixative
  • Wood preservative, chromated copper arsenate
  • Other: leather tanning, refractories, byproduct of combustion
major lead uses
Major Lead Uses
  • Sheet lead (building construction, medical radiation shielding, etc.)
  • Ammunition
  • Heat Stabilizer in PVC and Rubber
  • Electronics (solder, surface and lead finish, etc.)
  • Casting/Extrusion (e.g., weights, jewelry)
  • Metal finishing
major lead uses28
Major Lead Uses
  • Pigments
  • Glass
  • Batteries
  • Concrete (present in fly ash and minerals)
  • Ceramics
  • Power generation and waste combustors (present in solid waste and fossil fuels)
prioritize chemical uses
Prioritize Chemical Uses
  • Importance to Massachusetts
    • Manufacturing
    • Consumer Products
  • Availability of Alternatives
  • Exposure potential
  • Stakeholder Issues
  • Other
high priority chemical uses
High Priority Chemical Uses
  • Perchloroethylene
    • Garment cleaning
    • Automotive aerosols (brake, engine, tire cleaners)
    • Vapor degreasing
  • Formaldehyde
    • Adhesives/resins for manufactured wood panels
    • Barber/beauty sanitizers
    • Preserved school laboratory specimen fixatives
high priority chemical uses31
High Priority Chemical Uses
  • DEHP
    • Medical devices used in neonatal and infant care
    • Resilient flooring
    • Vinyl wall coverings
  • Lead
    • PVC heat stabilizers for wire and cable coatings
    • Weighting: wheel weights and fishing tackle
    • Ammunition for shooting ranges
high priority chemical uses32
High Priority Chemical Uses
  • Hexavalent Chromium
    • Hard chrome plating
    • Decorative chrome plating
    • Chromate conversion coatings
phase ii chemical alternatives screening
Phase II – Chemical Alternatives & Screening
  • Identify Alternatives
  • Screen Alternatives
  • Consider Stakeholder Input
  • Prioritize Alternatives
identify alternatives
Identify Alternatives
  • Existing and Emerging Alternatives
    • Drop-in Chemical Substitutes
    • Material Substitutes
    • Changes in Manufacturing Operations
    • Changes to Component/Product Design
    • Other Technological Solutions
screen alternatives
Screen Alternatives
  • TURA Science Advisory Board More Hazardous Chemicals
  • Persistence, Bioaccumulativity, Toxicity
  • Carcinogenicity
prioritize alternatives
Prioritize Alternatives
  • Performance
  • Availability
  • Manufacturing Location
  • Environmental, Health and Safety
  • Cost
  • Global Market Effect
  • Representative of a class of alternatives
alternatives selected for study
Alternatives Selected for Study
  • Chemical, materials and technological alternatives selected
  • Some specific alternatives chosen as representative of a class of alternatives
lead uses and alternatives
Heat Stabilizers – PVC Wire and Cable

Mixed metal: Ca-, Ba-, Mg-Zn

Magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate hydrate

Magnesium zinc aluminum hydroxide carbonate

Handgun Ammunition

Bismuth (bismuth with copper, polyethylene or zinc jacket)

Copper (sintered copper powder with tin, copper with polymer)

Iron (iron powder with copper)

Tungsten (tungsten and copper powder in nylon matrix, and tungsten with tin)

Zinc (zinc powder and zinc wire with jacket)

Wheel Weights


Polypropylene (PP with chalk filler, and PP cartridge with steel media)



Zinc and zinc/copper/aluminum alloy (ZAMA)

Fishing Sinkers






Lead – Uses and Alternatives
perc uses and alternatives
Garment Cleaning

Hydrocarbon (Exxon Mobil DF-2000)

Aliphatic glycol ethers (Rynex)

Siloxane (Green Earth)

Wet cleaning w/ detergent (DWX 44 – Icy Water and Green Jet)

Liquid CO2

Vapor Degreasing

N-propyl bromide (Ensolv)

Volatile methyl siloxane (Dow OS 10)

HFCs (Micro Care Flux Remover C)

HFCs (Dupont Vertrel MCA - azeotrope of Vertrel® XF hydrofluorocarbon (2,3-dihydrodecafluoropentane) with trans-1,2-dichloroethylene.

Water based cleaning

Automotive Aerosols (Tire, brake and engine cleaners - external and internal)

Water and detergent


Glycol ethers

Hydrocarbon (hydrotreated light petroleum distillates; medium aliphatic petroleum solvent)



Citrus based terpene (d-limonene)

Perc – Uses and Alternatives
formaldehyde uses and alternatives
Architectural Panel

Wood plywood panels (Purebond) and by Columbia Forest Products (soy adhesive binder)

Recycled paper-based panels made by Homasote (paraffin wax binder)

Wood fiber-Portland Cement panels made by Viroc

Plastic-wood composite panels by JER Envirotech

Salon and Barber drawer sanitizers

Process change to eliminate use of paraformaldehyde “Steri-dri” sterilants

UV sterilization chamber

Education Specimen Fixatives and Preservatives

Specimens in Formalternate (Propylene Glycol, Ethylene Glycol Phenyl Ether, and Phenol)

Specimens in WARD’S Formaldehyde-Free Preserved Specimens (may contain gluteraldehyde, phenol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol pheyl either, dietheylene glycol phenyl ether, or acetone)

Specimens in STF Preservative by Nebraska Scientific (diazolidinyl urea, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,2-diol, zinc sulfate, sodium citrate)

Virtual/Video dissection

Formaldehyde – Uses and Alternatives
dehp uses and alternatives
Resilient Flooring

DOTP, di 2-ethylhexyl terephthalate DGD, dipropylene glycol dibenzoate

DINP, di (isononyl) phthalate Natural linoleum



Medical Devices Bag/Sheet Applications

TOTM, tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate

DEHA, di (ethylhexyl) adipate

BTHC, butyryl trihexyl citrate

DINCH, di (isononyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate




Medical Devices: Tubing Applications







Vinyl Wall Coverings



Glass woven textiles (Textra)

Wood fiber/Polyester (Allegory by Innovations)

Polyester/cellulose blends (Duraprene, Enspire and Moment)

DEHP – Uses and Alternatives
hex cr uses and alternatives
Zinc galvanized steel passivation

Molybdates / Moly-white

Trivalent chromium compounds

Mineral tie-coat

Decorative Chrome Electroplating

Trivalent chromium plating baths

Low temperature arc vapor deposition of Trivalent chromium

Hard Chrome Electroplating

Trivalent chromium plating baths

Thermal sprays: high velocity oxy-fuel and plasma sprays

Weld facing methods and micro-arc welding

Heat treatments and plasma nitriding

Laser modification, alloying and coating

Electrodeposited nanocrystalline coatings

Vapor deposition methods

Hex Cr – Uses and Alternatives
stay tuned
Stay Tuned
  • Go to our website ( and click on “5 Chemicals Alternatives Assessment Study” under “New at TURI”
  • The final report will be posted on our website this summer
  • Liz Harriman