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Strengthening the Weakest Links: An Innovative Approach to Enforcement Conservation International Center for Conservation and Government Enforcement Initiative Anita Sundari Akella December 2004. Why Enforcement?. Why Enforcement?.

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slide1
Strengthening the Weakest Links:

An Innovative Approach to Enforcement

Conservation International

Center for Conservation and Government

Enforcement Initiative

Anita Sundari Akella

December 2004

why enforcement
Why Enforcement?Why Enforcement?
  • Enforcement of PA boundaries, natural resource use rules and regulations is weak
    • Illegal timber trade $150 billion per year
    • Illegal fishing 30% of total catches
    • Illegal wildlife trade $6 – 7 billion per year
  • Innovative conservation strategies are stronger with good enforcement
    • Ecosystem Services Payments
    • Tradable Development Rights
    • PA Creation
what are conservationists doing about it
What Are Conservationists Doing About It?
  • Solutions are ad-hoc and often limited to individual sites
  • No methodical analysis of why enforcement is weak
  • No comparison across sites to draw global lessons learned
conventional wisdom on enforcement
Conventional Wisdom on Enforcement
  • Hire and equip more detection agents
  • Raise fines

These strategies, in isolation, are not working!

enforcement an economic perspective
Enforcement: An Economic Perspective
  • Illegal activity is fundamentally an economic issue
  • To deter it, disincentives must be bigger than incentives driving illegal activity
  • Enforcement is also an economic issue
innovation the enforcement economics approach
Innovation: The Enforcement Economics Approach

ED = Pd * Pa|d * Pp|a * Pc|p * Penalty * e-rt

Where:

ED Enforcement Disincentive

Pd Probability of detection

Pa|d Probability of arrest given detection

Pp|a Probability of prosecution given arrest

Pc|p Probability of conviction given prosecution

e-rt discount factor

t Time between detection and penalty

slide7
Risky Business?

Only 1% of crimes result in a conviction

applying the theory in practice
Applying the theory in practice
  • Bahia, Brazil: Illegal logging, illegal deforestation
  • Selva Maya, Mexico: Illegal wildlife trade
  • Palawan, Philippines: Cyanide/Dynamite fishing
  • Papua, Indonesia: Illegal logging, illegal wildlife trade
slide9
Atlantic Forest

BAHIA, BRASIL

Incentives to illegally log or deforest: $75.00

Enforcement Disincentive: $6.44

slide10
Selva Maya

CHIAPAS, MEXICO

Incentives to Illegally Hunt/Trade Wildlife: $191.57

Enforcement Disincentive: $5.66

slide11
Papua Province

INDONESIA

Incentives to Illegally Ship Timber: $91,967.36

Enforcement Disincentive: $6.47

slide12
Calamianes Islands

PALAWAN, PHILIPPINES

Calamianes Islands

PALAWAN, PHILIPPINES

Incentives to Dynamite/Cyanide Fish: $70.57

Enforcement Disincentive: $0.09

what does this mean for conservation
What does this mean for conservation?
  • For complex reasons, enforcement is abysmal in many of the countries where we work.
  • Less than 1%of environmental crimes result in any penalty whatsoever.
  • When it comes to the environment, CRIME PAYS!
key challenges
Key Challenges
  • Interagency cooperation across enforcement chain
  • Adequate budgetary resources
  • Consistent performance monitoring and adaptive management system for all agencies
  • Regular, ongoing capacity-building programs, jointly developed
  • Strong, clear and adequate laws and policies
priority reform enforcement policy
Priority: Reform Enforcement Policy
  • Increase budget allocation to environmental enforcement agencies across the chain
  • Strengthen, clarify, and consolidate legislation
  • Establish guidelines for inter-agency cooperation and annual performance reporting
  • Create the legal framework for alternative enforcement systems to operate
priority implement adaptive management
Priority: Implement Adaptive Management
  • Develop standardized data management systems for use across agencies
  • Reach agreement on enforcement statistics (indicators) to be produced annually
  • Train key staff in use of enforcement economics methodology to analyze statistics and develop strategic enforcement strengthening plans
  • Require annual publication (public disclosure) of enforcement performance report
priority build enforcement capacity
Priority: Build Enforcement Capacity
  • Improve performance of detection agents, prosecutors and judges through periodic training
  • Involve all agencies in the process of designing curricula for each audience
  • Take advantage of existing technical assistance partnerships with donor government agencies
  • Incorporate specialized local NGOs, think tanks and institutes
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