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Western Lands and the Coming of the Civil War. Making the Avoidable Seem Inevitable, 1848-1861. What to Do With Lands Acquired From Mexico As a Result of the Mexican War?. Slave or Free? Who gets to decide?. 4 Basic Positions. Let Congress Decide Wilmot Proviso (Keep it out)

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western lands and the coming of the civil war

Western Lands and the Coming of the Civil War

Making the Avoidable Seem Inevitable, 1848-1861

what to do with lands acquired from mexico as a result of the mexican war

What to Do With Lands Acquired From Mexico As a Result of the Mexican War?

Slave or Free?

Who gets to decide?

4 basic positions
4 Basic Positions
  • Let Congress Decide
    • Wilmot Proviso (Keep it out)
    • Divide territory (Missouri compromise Precedent)
  • Territories belong to all the citizens of all the states
  • Popular Sovereignty
  • Let the Supreme Court decide
1848 election
1848 Election

Lewis Cass—Democrat—Popular Sovereignty

Zachary Taylor—Whig—divide territory/nationalism over sectional issue of slavery

Free Soilers—Martin Van Buren—keep slavery out of the territories

1848 election results
1848 Election Results
  • Taylor Won
  • Van Burenites hurt Democrats in New York and Whigs in Ohio
  • Democrats continued with popular sovereignty.
gold rush in california sped up process

Gold Rush in California sped up process

California Petitioned for Admission as a free state

forging the armistice of 1850
Forging the Armistice of 1850
  • Congress struggled to elect Speaker of House
  • Taylor hoped to admit California and New Mexico as states quickly without dealing w/ issue of slavery in Territories.
clay s omnibus proposal
California admitted as a free state

Remainder of Mexican Cession/no restrictions on slavery

Little Texas

U. S. assumes Tx’s debt

No slave trade in D. C.

Slavery in D. C.

Stronger Fugitive Slave Law

Congress can’t interfere with interstate slave trade

Clay’s Omnibus Proposal
great debates
Great Debates
  • Daniel Webster’s 7th of March Address
  • Calhoun’s Valedictory
  • Seward’s Higher Law Speech
making the armistice
No Votes for Omnibus bill

Death of Zachary Taylor/Millard Filmore played more constructive role.

Stephen Douglas engineered passage of 5 bills containing essence of Omnibus

No real compromise.

Fruits of Armistice exacerbated rather than ameliorated sectional tension

Making the Armistice
fruits of armistice
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

Furthered belief of Slavepower conspiracy

Northern interposition/Personal Liberty Laws

Mobs rescued alleged runaways

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Made abstraction of slavery personal to Romantic reading public

Fruits of Armistice
franklin pierce administration
Franklin Pierce Administration
  • Democratic Dark Horse and “Doughface”
    • Appointed Southerners to key posts; these folk appeared to pursue proslavery agenda
    • Ostend Manifesto
kansas nebraska act
Kansas Nebraska Act
  • Stephen Douglas wanted Kansas Organized
  • Needed Southern votes
  • Agreed to overturn Missouri Compromise
  • Popular Sovereignty seemed “democratic”
  • Weakened Democrats in North; “Appeal of the Independent Democrats”
  • Weakened Whigs in the South
major significance of kna
Major Significance of KNA
  • Emergence of Republican Party
  • “Bleeding Kansas”
    • Difficult to Organize Territory without added burden of slavery
    • New England Emigrant Aid Society/Border Ruffians
    • Sack of Lawrence—May 1856
    • Pottawatomie Creek Massacre—John Brown
impact of bleeding kansas
Impact of Bleeding Kansas
  • Confirmed image of Lawless Southern slaveholders in Northern Mind
  • Led to Sumner-Brooks Incident
bleeding sumner
“Bleeding Sumner”
  • Southerners think Sumner got what he deserved
  • Northerners see Southerners as brutal barbarians
  • Transformation of Northern Politics (Rise of Republican Party)
rise of republican party
Rise of Republican Party
  • American or Know Nothing Party was a dominant party in North and 2d to Democrats as National Party through May 1856
  • Republicans ran 2d in 1856 Election—Bleeding Sumner made their anti-slavery message appealing
  • Research done by William E. Gienapp
1856 election
1856 Election
  • John Charles Fremont (Republican) crusaded against those “twin relics of barbarism—polygamy and slavery”
  • James Buchanan—Doughface—popular sovereignty and nonintervention.
1857 the year everything went wrong
1857: The Year Everything Went Wrong
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford
  • Panic of 1857
  • Lecompton Constitution
lincoln douglas debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
  • Douglas won, but L.’s version of Anti-slavery made him extremely popular
  • “In the right to eat the bread earned by the sweat of his brow, he is equal to me, to Judge Douglas, and to everyone else.”
john brown s raid
John Brown’s Raid
  • A conspiracy to Arm Slaves in Rebellion
  • Many Northerners thought Brown “will make the gallows as glorious as the cross.”
  • Southerners especially fearful: “All northerners are abolitionists, and all abolitionists are John Browns.”
1860 presidential election
Charleston Convention divides Democrats/Federal Slave Code in Territories

Northern Democrats nominate Douglas; Southern Democrats nominate Breckinridge

Lincoln wins Republican nomination/no extension of slavery

John Bell of Tennessee is Constitutional Unionist Candidate

1860 Presidential Election
1860 election map
1860 Election Map
  • Lincoln—180 Electoral Votes
  • Douglas—12 elect. Votes
  • Breckinridge—72 Electoral votes
  • Bell—39 Electoral Votes
secession of lower south
Secession of Lower South
  • South Carolina, followed by six other deep South states seceded before L. took office
  • Why?
    • Internal Subversion thesis.
confederate states of america
Confederate States of America
  • Established in Montgomery, Ala.
  • Constitution based on U. S. Constitution
  • Jefferson Davis/Alexander Stephens
  • Emphasis on Right of Revolution and morality of slavery
buchanan compromise
  • Buchanan took no provocative actions: Fort Pickens Truce and Fort Sumter standoff
  • Crittenden Compromise failed
  • House Committee of 33 proposed 13th amendment failed