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Voice and Voice Disorders. Basic Anatomy and Physiology Loudness disorders Pitch disorders Quality disorders Diagnosis and evaluation Treatment. Basic Anatomy and Physiology. Physiology. Abduction (opening) Sub-glottal air pressure Adduction (closing) Vocal fold elasticity

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voice and voice disorders
Voice and Voice Disorders
  • Basic Anatomy and Physiology
  • Loudness disorders
  • Pitch disorders
  • Quality disorders
  • Diagnosis and evaluation
  • Treatment

Voice & Voice Disorders

basic anatomy and physiology
Basic Anatomy and Physiology

Voice & Voice Disorders

physiology
Physiology
  • Abduction (opening)
    • Sub-glottal air pressure
  • Adduction (closing)
    • Vocal fold elasticity
    • Bernouli effect

Voice & Voice Disorders

vocal fold vibration
Vocal Fold Vibration
  • Males about 120 Hz
  • Females about 200 Hz
  • Children about 240 Hz

Voice & Voice Disorders

intensity of voice
Intensity of Voice
  • 30 dB for soft speech
  • 50 dB for normal speech
  • 70 dB for loud speech
  • 90 dB for shouting

Voice & Voice Disorders

normal voice quality
Normal Voice Quality
  • Difficult to quantify because it is so subjective.
  • Disorders of quality use subjective terms

Voice & Voice Disorders

disorders of loudness
Disorders of Loudness
  • Aphonia
  • Spastic Dysphonia
  • Chronic Weak Voice
  • Excessive Loudness

Voice & Voice Disorders

disorders of pitch
Disorders of pitch
  • Habitual Pitch Levels
  • Variations in Pitch
  • Pitch Breaks
  • Falsetto
  • Other Pitch Disorders

Voice & Voice Disorders

habitual pitch levels
Habitual Pitch Levels
  • Variability is normal between people
  • Changes in pitch during puberty
  • Causes of abnormal pitch
    • “infantile” personalities
    • Tension
    • Transexuals
    • Functional (e.g., voice of authority)
    • Anabolic steroids
    • Hearing loss

Voice & Voice Disorders

variations in pitch
Variations in pitch
  • Monotone can be due to …
    • Emotional conflicts (e.g., depression)
    • Fatigue
    • Hearing loss
    • Habitual pitch near bottom or top of pitch range.

Voice & Voice Disorders

pitch breaks
Pitch breaks
  • Occurs during puberty
  • Rapid shift from high to low, or low to high pitch

Voice & Voice Disorders

falsetto
Falsetto
  • Abnormally high pitch due to tightening of vocal folds.
  • Causes include . . .
    • Psychological problems
    • Defense against pitch breaks
    • Method of preventing hoarseness of harsh voice.

Voice & Voice Disorders

other pitch disorders
Other pitch disorders
  • Tremulous voice
  • Diplophonia

Voice & Voice Disorders

quality disorders
Quality Disorders
  • Disorders of Resonance
  • Disorders of Laryngeal Tone

Voice & Voice Disorders

disorders of resonance
Disorders of Resonance
  • Hypernasality ... excessive nasality
    • Causes . . .
      • Cleft palate
      • Adenoids or tonsils removed
      • Assimilation nasality
      • Other
  • Hyponasality (denasality)
    • Nasal passages are closed off.
    • Causes. . .
      • Enlarged tonsils or adenoids
      • URI

Voice & Voice Disorders

disorders of laryngeal tone
Disorders of Laryngeal Tone
  • Breathiness
  • Harsh Voice
  • Hoarse Voice

Voice & Voice Disorders

breathiness
Breathiness
  • Excessive amount of airflow and lack of consistent vocal fold vibration
  • Insert 12.9 video clip
  • Causes . . .
    • Weakness of vocal folds
    • Contact ulcers, vocal nodules, vocal polyps
    • Non-organic causes

Voice & Voice Disorders

harsh voice
Harsh voice
  • Often found in presence of “glottal fry”
  • Unusually high degree of tension.
  • Causes . . .
    • Non-organic
    • Having to speak in background noise

Voice & Voice Disorders

hoarse voice
Hoarse Voice
  • Combination of breathy and harsh voice (cheerleader’s voice)
  • Causes . . .
    • vocal abuse
    • Severe cold or laryngitis
    • Early sign of organic pathology

Voice & Voice Disorders

diagnosis of voice disorder
Diagnosis of Voice Disorder
  • Medical
  • Speech-Language Pathology

Voice & Voice Disorders

medical
Medical
  • Physical exam includes laryngoscope
  • Endoscope
  • Video stroboscopy

Voice & Voice Disorders

speech language pathologist
Speech-Language Pathologist
  • Perceptual assessment
    • Voice disorders are observed and tested by speech language pathologist. Normally a high quality recording is made.

Voice & Voice Disorders

treatment of voice disorder
Treatment of Voice Disorder
  • Medical
  • Therapy

Voice & Voice Disorders

medical1
Medical
  • Physical removal of polyp or nodule
  • Laryngectomy
    • Removal of Vocal Folds

Voice & Voice Disorders

medical2
Medical

Voice & Voice Disorders

speech therapy
Speech therapy
  • Relaxation techniques
  • Adaptive behavior
  • Artificial larynx (see video clip 12.10)
  • esophageal speech

Voice & Voice Disorders