Causes for the Civil War • Review: List at least 3 causes of the Civil War • Missouri Compromise • Mexican-American War (Texas Annexation) • Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Kansas-Nebraska Act • Scott vs Sanford • John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry • Abraham Lincoln
Civil War Review • What were the main differences between the north and south? • What were the major battles? (SAVAGE) • Who were the major generals? • What was the Emancipation Proclamation? • Who won the Civil War? • What is the importance of Appomattox Courthouse?
Reconstruction Review Lincoln is assassinated before he can negotiate new plan The Civil War Ends Lincoln’s 10% plan – Too Easy CV Black Codes are created in the South to “enslave” blacks Freedmen’s Bureau is formed to help former slaves, poor whites, Native Am Andrew Johnson carries out Lincoln’s plan and adds 13th am Congress enacts Civil Rights Act of 1866 and veto's president Congressional Rec. is put in place, military districts in South, 14th am, new state const. Johnson fires Republicans and is impeached, isn’t charged Grant becomes pres, 15th am
Reconstruction • 1865 – 1877 • Federal Government programs carried out to repair the damage to the South and restore the Southern states to the Union.
War’s Aftermath • Physical toll - cities and farms were destroyed. • Human toll – 600, 000+ dead. • Southerner’s hardships: • Freedmen – starting new lives in a poor economic region. • Plantation owners lost slave labor ($ 3 billion) • Poor whites – can’t find work, competition w/ freedmen
Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan • 10 % Plan: • Offered a pardon to any Confederate soldier except officers. • Each state hold a Constitutional convention (minimum 10% swear allegiance to Union)
Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address • are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds….to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.” • “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we Lincoln aimed to take it easy on the South No Malice = No Revenge
Radical Republicans opposed his plan. • Too lenient (no equality for blacks) • Created own bill. • Lincoln lets it die (pocket veto)
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan • Carry out Lincoln’s Plan. • Ratify the 13th Amendment. • More generous to the South. (lenient) • Revived Southern defiance.
13th Amendment • "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
Freedmen’s Bureau(Bureau of Refugees, Freedman, and Abandoned Lands) • 1865 • Help former slaves get a new start on life. (education) • 1st major relief agency in U.S. history
Black Codes • Similar to slave codes • Restricted the freedom of movement. • Limited the rights of free people.
Black Codes • As southern states were restored to the Union under President Johnson’s plan, they began to enact black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights. • The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these: • Curfews: Generally, black people could not gather after sunset. • Vagrancy laws: Freedmen convicted of vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor. • Labor contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned. • Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 • Passed by Congress. • OUTLAWED BLACK CODES. • Johnson vetoed it. • Congress overrides veto (1st time ever!) • Created the 14th Amendment.
14th Amendment (Citizenship) • All citizens born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens of the U.S. and of the state where they reside….. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction
Congress Radical Moderates favored opposed Both opposed Johnson, black codes, expansion of Republican Party in the South. Grant blacks CIVIL RIGHTS – personal liberties guaranteed by law (voting, equal treatment)
Reconstruction Act of 1867 • Divide the 10 former Confederate States into 5 military districts. • Had to ratify the 14th Amendment. Tenn. exempt
Tenure of Office Act • Pres. must get Senate approval to fire anyone. • Johnson fired Edwin Stanton. (Sec. of War) • Unconstitutional?
Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens Charles Summner Would go after President Johnson through the impeachment process
President Johnson’s Impeachment • House members voted 126 to 47 to impeach him. • Charge him with wrongdoing in office. • “high crimes and misdemeanors” for violating the Tenure of Office Act
The Senate Trial • 11 week trial • Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (1 vote short of the required 2/3’s) • Finished the remaining months of his term
Election of 1868 • Ulysses S. Grant – (Republican) Wins.
15th Amendment • No one can be denied the right to vote “base on race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
Electing New Leaders Hiram Revels First A.A. elected to the Senate (1870) (Miss.)
Carpetbaggers • Northern Republicans who moved South • Seen as greedy by Southerners. • Most were honest.
Scalawags • White Southern Republicans. • Seen as a “traitor” Former Rebel Gen. James Longstreet turned scalawag.
12.2 • How were the black codes and 14th amendment related? • How did Congress’s Reconstruction plan differ from Johnson’s? • Were Johnson’s actions constituted as “high crimes and misdemeanors”? Explain your answer.
Sharecropping Sharecroppers were Freedmen and poor Whites Signed a work contract with landowners Picked cotton or whatever crop the land owner had Freedmen did not receive “40 acres and a mule”
Sharecropping • Landowner provided land, tools, animals, house and charge account at the local store to purchase necessities • Freedmen provided the labor. • Sharecropping is based on the “credit” system.
A Vicious Cycle of Debt 1. Poor whites and freedmen have no jobs, no homes, and no money to buy land. 6. Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to the landlord. 2. Landowners need laborers and have no money to pay laborers. ECONOMIC SLAVERY • 3. Hire poor whites and freedmen as laborers • Sign contracts to work landlord’s land in exchange for a part of the crop. • 5. At harvest time, the sharecropper is paid. • Pays off debts. • If sharecropper owes more to the landlord or store than his share of the crop is worth; more in debt. 4. Landlord keeps track of the money that sharecroppers owe him for housing, food or local store.