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Public Weather Services Programme Public Warnings Dissemination and CAP Haleh Kootval Chief, Public Weather Services Programme WMO Forecasts NMHS s Warnings Public Appreciate the weather services PWSP Public Weather Services Programme (PWSP) established in 1994

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public weather services programme

Public Weather Services Programme

Public Warnings Dissemination and


Haleh Kootval

Chief, Public Weather Services Programme


public weather services programme pwsp established in 1994





Appreciate the weather services


Public Weather Services Programme (PWSP) established in 1994
  • Strengthen the capabilities of WMO Membersto meet the needs of the community through provision of comprehensive weather services, with particular emphasis on public safety and welfare,
  • Foster a better understanding by the publicof the capabilitiesof National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) and how best to use their services”

WMO’s Global Operational Network

Global Observing System

Global Telecommunication System

Global Data Processing And Forecasting System:

3 World Meteorological Centres

40 Regional Specialized Centers

NMHSs deliver information and warning services

pws dissemination
PWS Dissemination

Weather Hazards

floods, fire, drought, strong winds, heavy snow etc

Services by NMHSs

Weather Forecasts, watches, alerts, Warnings

Dissemination Methods

Websites, TV, Radio, Telephone, RANET

Examples of Groups served by NMHSs

General Public, isolated communities, Government and civil defence authorities etc.

dissemination and presentation
Dissemination and Presentation
  • Effective dissemination and presentation: An essential element of and the key to effective PWS
    • Challenge: To convey warnings, forecasts and other information effectively to general public

WARNINGS - a processthat begins with the production of information about weather and climate and ends with effective loss minimising actions

  • Warnings must beproduced
  • Warning message must betransmitted & received
  • Information must beunderstood
  • Information must beconfirmed
  • Message must bebelieved
  • Risk must bepersonalised
  • Decision totake appropriate defensive and preparatoryactions
  • Resourcesandcapacityfor preparatory action
the challenge of public warning
The Challenge of Public warning
  • Collaborative actions are necessary to assure that standards-based, all-media, all-hazards public warning becomes an essential infrastructure component available to all societies worldwide
  • Provide information that iseasily accessible and understandableeverywhere
the challenge of public warning8
The Challenge of Public warning
  • All available communications media should be used (from broadcast down to individuals) to get timely and appropriate warnings for all hazards to everyone who needs them
  • A standards-based, all-media, all-hazards public warning strategy makes sense now using digital technologies and integrating radio, television, cellular telephone, satellites, Internet-based and other network services
weather climate and health example of all hazard warning system
Weather, Climate and HealthExample of All-Hazard warning system
  • Growing awareness of the linkages between human health and weather and climate
  • PWS provide information on risks caused by changing weather and climate conditions
  • Cardiovascular and respiratory
  • Heat and cold stress
  • UV radiation
  • Pollen spread and dust
  • High Ozon concentration
  • Spread of typhoid, malaria or cholera
factors contributing to ineffectual warnings
Factors contributing to ineffectual warnings
  • Plans can go wrong because of:
    • Forecast accuracy: miscalculating onset time, intensity or impacts
    • “sole authority” issue in preparing and issuing warnings
    • Communication and/or dissemination inadequacies
    • Contradictory information from different sources
    • Low credibility of NMHS
dissemination of warnings and forecasts
Dissemination of warnings and Forecasts
  • Often the challenge is to provide the most cost-effective system(s) within severe funding constraints
  • Dissemination techniques will depend on the communication infrastructure
  • Robust and reliable
  • Back up capability
dissemination of warnings and forecasts12
Dissemination of warnings and Forecasts
  • Dissemination systems: most critical issue for developing countries
  • Point-to-Multipoint
  • Mass media (TV, Radio, Newspapers),
  • sirens and signals, RANET, NOAA Weather Radio
  • Man on bicycle
dissemination of warnings and forecasts13
Dissemination of warnings and Forecasts
  • Point-to-Point: Dedicated Fax, automatic telephone answering
  • Internet
  • email
  • Mobile communication
  • Strength and weaknesses
examples of dissemination
Examples of Dissemination

Korea (high tech)

  • Cell Broadcasting Service (CBS) Phone Disaster Notification Broadcasting System
  • Problem: transmission does not reach high mountain areas in need of warnings for flash flood
  • Radio Disaster Warning Broadcasting System
  • TV Disaster Warning Broadcasting System

CBS System of Mobile Telecom Company Base


Request to CBS message

Transmission at disaster


CBS message on mobile

phone which is located

at broadcasted area


End user

(Mobile phone with

CBS service function]


Mobile Telecom



【 CBS Message Transmission flow 】

  • CBS (Cell Broadcasting Service) Phone Disaster Notification Broadcasting System (Cont’d)

▣ System Structure and Message Flow



5) TV Disaster Warning Broadcasting System

▣ System Management streamlines


examples of dissemination17
Examples of Dissemination
  • Bangladesh (people intensive)
  • 33000 Cyclone Volunteers
  • CPP and Red Cross
  • BMD sends info to CPP HQ
  • Information gets to the village-level volunteers through radio
  • Use bicycles
  • Distribution to public by megaphones and flags
  • Problme: Maintenance of megaphones and torches
examples of dissemination18
Examples of Dissemination
  • Sri Lanka- high tech tsunami warning system using satellites, mobile and fixed wireless phones
  • Challenge: reach large numbers of local communities and rural areas
  • Major component of the project is use of CAP
the severe weather information centre swic
The Severe Weather Information Centre (SWIC)

  • Established as a centralized source for media access to official tropical cyclone warnings and information issued by NMHSs and RSMCc
  • Has attracted the participation of WMO Members in all tropical cyclone basis
  • Currently displaystropical cyclone warningsand information for all tropical cyclone basins
  • Observationson heavy rain/snowfrom all WMO Members are displayed
  • New page displaying the occurrences ofthunderstormswas also added.
  • Ultimate goal: to develop SWIC into a Multi-hazard Information and Resource Centre
cap and pws conclusions
CAP and PWSConclusions
  • Existing warning systems are mix of different technologies and procedures
  • CAP will allow consistent warning message disseminated simultaneously over many different warning systems, thus increasing warning effectiveness
  • Possibility of use of CAP in SWIC and Meteoalarm for public warnings