Chromium Picolinate: A Critical Analysis of the Ergogenic Claims - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chromium Picolinate: A Critical Analysis of the Ergogenic Claims

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  1. Chromium Picolinate:A Critical Analysis of the Ergogenic Claims By Jennifer MacWhorter for HE 426 Sports & Exercise Nutrition

  2. Classification & Usage • Cr(pic)3 is the combination of the essential trace mineral chromium and picolinic acid. • Picolinic acid increases absorption rate from .5-2% to 2-5%. Vincent, John B. (2003). The Potential Value and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate as a Nutritional Supplement, Weight Loss Agent and Muscle Development Agent {Electronic Version}. Sports Med, 33 (3), 213-230

  3. Classification & Usage • Daily adequate intake for chromium is 35mcg (males) and 25mcg (females). • Naturally found in brewers yeast, whole grains, nuts, cheese, beer, and mushrooms • The more processed food is, the less chromium it will contain. Williams, Melvin H. (2005). Nutrition for Health, Fitness, & Sport. Boston: McGraw-Hill

  4. Classification & Usage Cr(pic)3 works with insulin to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Supplementation can help increase insulin production and improve body composition. Low levels of insulin can lead to insulin resistance, with an increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular complications and obesity.

  5. Classification & Usage • Cr(pic)3 from GNC costs between $7.99-$14.99 for 90 capsules of 500 mcg. • Recommended dose of up to 1000 mcg/day • 1 years worth would cost ~$120 • 10 million Americans consume more than $150 million in chromium supplements each year.

  6. Performance Factor • Claims • Appetite suppressant • Leads to weight and fat loss • Increases efficiency of insulin • Promotes insulin transfer of glucose from bloodstream to cells, creating more energy • Extra energy may increase the production of serotonin, which will subsequently reduce appetite Allen, Amanda (2003). Chromium Picolinate and Weight Loss. Retrieved Feburary 11, 2006, from www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/psychology/health_psychology/chromiumpicolinate.htm

  7. Performance factor • Targeted populations • Elderly • Less chromium is absorbed as humans age • Athletes • When stress is placed upon body more chromium is excreted. Endurance/strength type exercise may lead to lower levels in the body.

  8. Effectiveness • Cr(pic)3 claims to improve insulin sensitivity • Useful only if diet is lacking in chromium • Diets lacking in chromium may cause Type 2 diabetes • The addition of chromium may help reverse the onset of Type 2 diabetes If there is no shortage of chromium, will supplementation be useful???

  9. Effectiveness 40 people with impaired glucose tolerance took either a placebo or 400 mcgs twice daily of Cr(pic)3. Effects were measured on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and lipids. No benefits were gained from the supplementation. • Shows that the addition of Cr(pic)3 does not improve insulin sensitivity unless the person is already deficient in chromium. Gunton, Jenny E., Cheung, N. Wah. Hitchman, R., Hamms,G. O’Sullivan, C., Foster-Powell, K., & McElduff, A. (2005). Chromium Supplementation Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Sensitivity, or Lipid Profile {Electronic Version}. Diabetes Care, 28, 712-713.

  10. Effectiveness • Cr(pic)3 claims to decrease fat mass and increase lean body mass • This would depend on how insulin is affected by chromium supplementation.

  11. Effectiveness • Wrestlers were given 200 mcg of Cr(pic)3 daily for 14 weeks. • Double blind, placebo-controlled study • Measurements were taken from underwater weighing, skin folds, and body circumferences • No effect was found on body mass, lean body mass, percentage body fat, fat mass, or strength Vincent, John B. (2003). The Potential Value and Toxicity of Chromium Picolinate as a Nutritional Supplement, Weight Loss Agent and Muscle Development Agent {Electronic Version}. Sports Med, 33 (3), 213-230

  12. Effectiveness 40 day study involving 18-21 year old males half of which were receiving 200 mcg of Cr(pic)3 daily. • Participants engaged in two, 40 minute exercise periods a week • Body composition measured by the thickness of skin folds and bicep and calf circumferences.

  13. Participants receiving supplement average 2.2 kg body mass average 1.6 lean body mass No change in body fat Participants not receiving supplement average 1.25 kg body mass average .04 kg lean body mass average 1.1% body fat Effectiveness

  14. Effectiveness • Any studies done that promote the use of Cr(pic)3 as a fat burner and muscle builder were unable to produce similar results in repeated, more controlled studies. • Measurements would be taken in ways that inadequately measure the affects (skin fold and circumference) vs. more accurate measurements (underwater weighing, dual x-ray absorptiometry, magnetic resonance).

  15. Safety • Generally thought to be safe in recommended doses. • Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were found to develop cleavage of chromosomes. • Used unpurified Cr(pic)3 • No conclusive studies done on humans

  16. Safety • Long term studies on safe levels of Cr(pic)3 still need to be done • People supplementing usually take amounts well over the RDA. The effects of taking such an increased amount have not been studied effectively enough to know how it affects the human body.

  17. Safety • Reported effects • Anemia • Renal failure • Liver dysfunction • Hypoglycemia • Acute, short-lasting cognitive, perceptual and motor changes

  18. Safety • Overdose amount not yet known • Over a thousand times the adequate daily intake will cause no immediate danger • Levels are measured by hair or blood samples, no quick tests are available to assess levels

  19. Ethical & Legal Issues • Cr(pic)3 is a legal supplement in the United States and there are no negative ethical issues with regard to safety.

  20. Recommendation • Recommend use only if showing early signs of Type 2 diabetes. • First try to naturally increase levels by changing diet. • Not recommended as a weight loss aid or to increase lean body mass • No conclusive studies done to support use