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Modelling Intellectual Processes: The object-orient FRBR Model CIDOC 2006 Martin Doerr Center for Cultural Informatics Institute of Computer Science Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas Gothenburg, Sweden September 12, 2006

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modelling intellectual processes the object orient frbr model

Modelling Intellectual Processes: The object-orient FRBR Model

CIDOC 2006

Martin Doerr

Center for Cultural Informatics

Institute of Computer Science

Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas

Gothenburg, Sweden

September 12, 2006

the frbr crm harmonization library and museum information
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationLibrary and Museum Information
  • The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) is a core ontology aiming to integrate cultural heritage information.
  • The Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) is a core ER model to integrate library information.
    • Libraries document literature in order to facilitate access to it.
    • Museum objects are referred to and published in literature. Literature describes the museum objects, their context and theories about and related to them. Literature describes subjects that are exemplified or illustratedby museum objects.
    • Museum documentation classifies and describes museum objects, their context and relevance. It refers to literature. Museums produce regularly literature. Libraries may also produce literature.
    • Libraries may document and curate rare objects as museums do.
the frbr crm harmonization library and museum information3
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationLibrary and Museum Information
    • Documentation tasks of museums and libraries overlap.
    • Museum and library information has complex interrelations. Museum and library information overlaps, and otherwise is different.
    • Museums and libraries can learn from each others methodology.
    • Research needs an integrated view on museum and library information
  • There was no common conceptual model or machine-readable language to integrate rich museum and library information. DC is a good format, but often too simple. MARC is detailed, but used only by libraries. There are the models of FRBR, FRAD, CIDOC CRM.
the frbr crm harmonization the harmonization project
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationThe Harmonization Project
  • Formation in 2003 of the International Working Group on FRBR/CIDOC CRM Harmonisation:
    • A collaboration of CIDOC CRM-SIG and the IFLA FRBR Review Group.
    • To express the IFLA FRBR model with the concepts, ontological methodology and notation conventions provided by the CIDOC CRM.
    • To facilitate the integration, mediation and interchange of bibliographic and museum information.
    • After 7 meetings, a first complete draft of “FRBROO” for public comment. Definition available as text in the format of the CRM.
    • Other forms: A comprehensive text with all related CRM definitions and complete mappings FRBRER to FRBROO, OWL/RDF files, VISIO graphics.
    • Work continues with FRAR (Functional Requirements for Authority Records)
the frbr crm harmonization crm
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationCRM
  • The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM)
    • developed since 1996 by CIDOC / ISO TC46, ISO 21127 by 2006
    • a core ontology aiming to integrate cultural heritage information
  • Innovations:
    • centre descriptions not around the things, but around the events that connect people, material and immaterial things in space-time.
    • explicit description of the discourse on relations between identifiers and the identified.
    • typologies modeled both as classification means and as objects of the cultural-historical discourse.
  • Lacks: a model of intellectual work
the frbr crm harmonization frbr
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationFRBR
  • The Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)
    • developed 1992-1997 by IFLA, now being complemented by the Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD)
    • A core ER model to integrate library objects by content relation
    • Might result in a new library practice
  • Innovations:
    • Definition of stages/ abstraction levels of intellectual products: Work, Expression, Manifestation, Item.
    • Clusters publications and items around the notion of derivation and common conceptual origin across stages / abstraction levels.
  • Lacks: any explicit notion of the processes behind. Partially ambiguous definitions (overgeneralization).
the frbr crm harmonization frbr abstraction levels
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationFRBR : Abstraction Levels

has part

has a complement

has a successor

has a summary

has a supplement

has a transformation

has adaptation

has an imitation

“a distinct intellectual or artistic creation…

there is no single material object

one can point to as the work...”

Work

isrealized through

(is a realization of)

has part

“the intellectual or artistic realization of a work in the

form of alpha-numeric, musical, or choreographic

notation, sound, image, object, movement, etc”

has a complement

has a successor

has a summary

has a supplement

has a transformation

has adaptation

has an imitation

Expression

isembodied in

(is the embodiment of )

“the physical embodiment of an expression of a

work…all the physical objects that bear the same

characteristics…

…may be only a single physical exemplar…”

has part

Manifestation

isexemplified by

(exemplifies )

has part

“a single exemplar of a manifestation...”

Item

the frbr crm harmonization clarification of work concepts
The FRBR - CRM Harmonizationclarification of Work concepts
  • The substance of Work is concepts (the idea).
    • Only through the comprehension of the concepts derivation is possible.
  • Individual Work: A self-contained set of concepts (“completed”)
  • Complex Work: Continuation (possibly by others), complements, alternatives, translations !
  • Container Work: Incorporating unaltered work.
  • The Publisher’s work is a Work !
  • Serial Work: Coherent, open ended series/serials

E28 Conceptual Object

F1Work

F46 Individual Work

F48 Container Work

F21 Complex Work

F43 Publication Work

F22 Serial Work

the frbr crm harmonization clarification of expression concepts
The FRBR - CRM Harmonizationclarification of Expression concepts
  • The substance of Expression is signs (the “text”).
    • An Expression can be “complete”.
    • The kinds of signs/features that identify an Expression depend on the function.
  • Self-Contained ~: “Complete” – either according to author or unfinished.
  • Fragment ~: Any piece, in relation to the whole.
  • Publication ~: Text, layout, illustrations,…

E73 Information Object

F2 Expression

F23 Expression

Fragment

F20 Self-contained Expression

F41 Publication Expression

slide10

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationWork and Expression

Self-Contained Expression = Evidence of Individual Work

Complex Work = Coherent set of Individual Works (not “complex”)

F1 Work

F21 Complex Work

R12 has member

(is member of)

R12 is realized in

(realises)

F46 Individual Work

F46 Individual Work

F46 Individual Work

F46 Individual Work

R56 is realized in

(realises)

R56 is realized in

(realises)

F20 Self-Contained Expression

F20 Self-Contained Expression

F20 Self-Contained Expression

F20 Self-Contained Expression

the frbr crm harmonization clarification of manifestation concepts
The FRBR - CRM Harmonizationclarification of Manifestation concepts

E55 Type

immaterial

Manifestation Product Type is a class

of like items (the publication)

F3 Manifestation Product Type

E24 PhysicalMan-Made Stuff

E84 Information Carrier

An Item is single exemplar of a Manifestation

Product Type.

Manifestation

Singleton

An Manifestation Singleton is an “original”.

It may be a feature (e.g. Inscription)

Item

material

the frbr crm harmonization the externalization material immaterial
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationThe “Externalization”, material / immaterial

E65

Creation

E12

Production

E28

Conceptual

Object

F31 Expression

Creation

F40 Carrier

Production

Event

F3 Manifestation

Production Type

R9 comprises

carriers of

R41 produced

(was produced by)

R49 created a

realization of

R22

created

E24

Physical

Man-Made

Thing

F1 Work

E84

Information

Carrier

F2 Expression

R45 created

R10 belongs

to type

R56 is realized in

F23 Expression

Fragment

F21 Complex

Work

F46 Individual

Work

F20 Self Contained

Expression

F4 Manifestation

Singleton

F5 Item

slide13

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationConception and “Externalization”

F1 Work

R21 initiated

P4 has time-span

F30 Work Conception

E52 Time

P14 carried out by

P7…

E39 Actor

P4…

P14 carried out by

E65 Expression Creation

E53 Place

P7 took place at

R49 created a realisation of

R22 created

R45 created

F2 Expression

F4 Manifestation Singleton

Work elaboration

Work conception

Expression creation

time

produces a work

produces an idea

Produces (simultaneously) an

Expression and a Manifestation-Singleton

slide14

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationWork and Expression – short-cuts

F1 Work A

has part

F1 Work A.2

has part

R49B was realised through

(created a realisation of)

F46 Individual Work A.2.1

R56 is realised in

(realises)

F31 Expression Creation A.2.1

R22created

(was created by)

R13 is realized in

(realises)

F2 Expression A.2.1

the frbr crm harmonization container work what is the expression
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationContainer Work – What is the Expression?

The collected expressions

are integral part of the container

The Container Work adds Expression:

may cause Work with empty expression!

F48 Container Work &

F46 Individual Work

F48 Container Work

R13 is realized in

(realises)

R13 is realized in

(realises)

Overall Expression

Additional Expression

<Additional Expr.>

R13 is realized

in

R13 is realized

in

Expression of Work X

Work X

Expression of Work X

Work X

Expression of Work Y

Expression of Work Y

consistent

inconsistent

the frbr crm harmonization publication work an identity crisis
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationPublication Work - An Identity Crisis

F43 Publication Work

F21 Complex Work

“Oliver Twist” Publication Concept

“Oliver Twist” Idea

Publisher’s Level

R12 has member

(is mem ber of)

F46 Individual Work

R56 is realized in

(r ealises)

“Oliver Twist” Completed

F45 Publication Event

R56 is re alized in

(real ises)

“Oliver Twist” published!

R55 created produ ction plan

(was created by)

R11B forms part of

(is composed of)

F41 Publication Expression

F20 Self-Contained Expression

“Oliver Twist”

Publication content

“Oliver Twist” Text

F39 Production Plan

“Oliver Twist” Plan

CLR5 should carry

(should be carr ied by)

P128B is carried by

(carries)

R39B was followed by

(foll owed)

F3 Manifestation-Product Type

R38 produced things of type

(was produced by)

“Oliver Twist” Publication

Author’s Level

R10B is type of

(belongs to type)

F4 ManifestationSingleton

F40 Carrier

Production Event

“Oliver Twist” Manuscript

R41 produced

(was produced by

F5 Item

“Oliver Twist”

Printing

“Oliver Twist” 20th Book

slide17

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationManifestation Product Type - a Metaclass !

E55 Type

Metaclasses

E19 Physical Object

F3 Manifestation Product Type

R9 comprises

carriers of

F5 Item

instances

CLP57should have number of parts

Inherits from E19 Physical Object:

P57 has number of parts

P57 has number of parts

E60 Number

ISBN:960-86830-0-9

Items are seen as instances of a

particular Manifestation Product Type.

This is simulated by property R9

“R9 comprises carriers of” = instances

CPL57 should have number of parts

particulars

1

2

Individual copies

n

3

2

P57 has number of parts

slide18

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationEquivalence Physical - Electronic Publishing

Physical Publishing

Electronic Publishing

F45 Publication Event

F45 Publication Event

makes accessible

R55 created produ ction plan

(was created by)

F41 Publication Expression

R55 created produ ction plan

(was created by)

F41 Publication Expression

F39 Production Plan

CLR5 should carry

(should be carr ied by)

F39 Production Plan

R39B was followed by

(foll owed)

F3 Manifestation-Product Type

downloads

R39B was followed by

(foll owed)

R38 produced things of type

(was produced by)

R5 carri es

(is carried by)

R10B is type of

(belongs to type)

F40 Carrier

Production Event

R41 produced

(was produced by)

F40 Carrier

Production Event

R41 produced

(was produced by)

F5 Item

F5 Item

F44 ?

“copy on local

carrier”

“Result of an industrial process”

slide19

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationReproduction

E12 Production

F44 Reproduction Event

R59 reproduced

(was reproduced by)

R59 reproduced

(was reproduced by)

E84 Information Carrier

E84 Information Carrier

“In general, the copy will have different attributes from the original…

F44 Reproduction Event and F40 Carrier Production Event are not declared as disjoint…”

slide20

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationHow to identify Work?

F3 Manifestation

Product Type

R32 assigned

(was assigned by)

F4 Manifestation-Singleton

F36 Representative

Manifestation Assignment

R3 has representative manifestation product type

(is representative manifestation product type for)

R7 has representative manifestation-singleton

( is representative manifestation singleton for)

R17 carried out by

(performed)

R31 assigned to

(was assigned by)

F28 Bibliographic Agency

F2 Expression

R34 assigned

(was assigned by)

R16 carried out by

(performed)

F37 Representative

Expression Assignment

R2B has representative expression

(is representative expression for)

R33 assign to

(was assigned by)

F21Complex

Work

slide21

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationLibrary identifiers have structuring rules

R26 used constituent

(was used in)

P1B identifies

(is identifies by)

E1 CRM Entity

F13 Name = E41 Appellation

R51consists of

(forms part of)

F14 Identifier

R25 assigned

(was assigned by)

F33 Identifier Assignment

R52B used rule

(was the rule used in)

F16 Identifier Rule

R24 assigned to

(was assigned by)

slide22

The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationSummary of new Activity Concepts

F37 Representative Expression Assignment

E13 Attribute Assignment

F36 Representative Manifestation Assignment

E7 Activity

F33 Identifier Assignment

E15 Identifier Assignment

F45 Publication Event

E65 Creation

F30 Work Conception

F31 Expression Creation

E83 Type Creation

F44 Reproduction Event

E12 Production

E11 Modification

F40 Carrier production Event

the frbr crm harmonization results summary
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationResults summary
  • Topics solved:
    • Explicit modeling of the processes behind FRBR attributes.
    • The substance of Work, Expression and Manifestation
    • Conception of a Work. What is its identity, its parts? Can a work be continued by other persons? Can it contain other Work, and in which sense?
    • Expression fragments, parts, aggregates and collections: criteria of completeness, containment, reuse and intellectual contribution.
    • What is the contribution and product of thepublisher.
    • What is the first realization of a work in a symbolic form? What is the role of a manuscript, of a digital file, a written diskette in that process?
    • The equivalence of electronic and material publishing.
the frbr crm harmonization conclusions
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationConclusions
  • The combined model CRM – FRBROO:
    • Is a coherent model of museum and library conceptualization
    • On one side enriches the CIDOC CRM with notions of the stages of intellections creation and refines its model of identifiers and the associated discourse.
    • On the other side, it makes available to FRBR the general model of historical events of the CRM.
    • clarifies and makes explicit many notions more vaguely specified in FRBR
  • Further work:
    • FRAD (Authority Data),
    • modeling equivalence with performing arts.

SEE: http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr