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Modelling Intellectual Processes: The object-orient FRBR Model CIDOC 2006 Martin Doerr Center for Cultural Informatics Institute of Computer Science Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas Gothenburg, Sweden September 12, 2006

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Modelling intellectual processes the object orient frbr model l.jpg

Modelling Intellectual Processes: The object-orient FRBR Model

CIDOC 2006

Martin Doerr

Center for Cultural Informatics

Institute of Computer Science

Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas

Gothenburg, Sweden

September 12, 2006


The frbr crm harmonization library and museum information l.jpg
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationLibrary and Museum Information

  • The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) is a core ontology aiming to integrate cultural heritage information.

  • The Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) is a core ER model to integrate library information.

    • Libraries document literature in order to facilitate access to it.

    • Museum objects are referred to and published in literature. Literature describes the museum objects, their context and theories about and related to them. Literature describes subjects that are exemplified or illustratedby museum objects.

    • Museum documentation classifies and describes museum objects, their context and relevance. It refers to literature. Museums produce regularly literature. Libraries may also produce literature.

    • Libraries may document and curate rare objects as museums do.


The frbr crm harmonization library and museum information3 l.jpg
The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationLibrary and Museum Information

  • Documentation tasks of museums and libraries overlap.

  • Museum and library information has complex interrelations. Museum and library information overlaps, and otherwise is different.

  • Museums and libraries can learn from each others methodology.

  • Research needs an integrated view on museum and library information

  • There was no common conceptual model or machine-readable language to integrate rich museum and library information. DC is a good format, but often too simple. MARC is detailed, but used only by libraries. There are the models of FRBR, FRAD, CIDOC CRM.


  • The frbr crm harmonization the harmonization project l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationThe Harmonization Project

    • Formation in 2003 of the International Working Group on FRBR/CIDOC CRM Harmonisation:

      • A collaboration of CIDOC CRM-SIG and the IFLA FRBR Review Group.

      • To express the IFLA FRBR model with the concepts, ontological methodology and notation conventions provided by the CIDOC CRM.

      • To facilitate the integration, mediation and interchange of bibliographic and museum information.

      • After 7 meetings, a first complete draft of “FRBROO” for public comment. Definition available as text in the format of the CRM.

      • Other forms: A comprehensive text with all related CRM definitions and complete mappings FRBRER to FRBROO, OWL/RDF files, VISIO graphics.

      • Work continues with FRAR (Functional Requirements for Authority Records)


    The frbr crm harmonization crm l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationCRM

    • The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM)

      • developed since 1996 by CIDOC / ISO TC46, ISO 21127 by 2006

      • a core ontology aiming to integrate cultural heritage information

    • Innovations:

      • centre descriptions not around the things, but around the events that connect people, material and immaterial things in space-time.

      • explicit description of the discourse on relations between identifiers and the identified.

      • typologies modeled both as classification means and as objects of the cultural-historical discourse.

    • Lacks: a model of intellectual work


    The frbr crm harmonization frbr l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationFRBR

    • The Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)

      • developed 1992-1997 by IFLA, now being complemented by the Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD)

      • A core ER model to integrate library objects by content relation

      • Might result in a new library practice

    • Innovations:

      • Definition of stages/ abstraction levels of intellectual products: Work, Expression, Manifestation, Item.

      • Clusters publications and items around the notion of derivation and common conceptual origin across stages / abstraction levels.

    • Lacks: any explicit notion of the processes behind. Partially ambiguous definitions (overgeneralization).


    The frbr crm harmonization frbr abstraction levels l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationFRBR : Abstraction Levels

    has part

    has a complement

    has a successor

    has a summary

    has a supplement

    has a transformation

    has adaptation

    has an imitation

    “a distinct intellectual or artistic creation…

    there is no single material object

    one can point to as the work...”

    Work

    isrealized through

    (is a realization of)

    has part

    “the intellectual or artistic realization of a work in the

    form of alpha-numeric, musical, or choreographic

    notation, sound, image, object, movement, etc”

    has a complement

    has a successor

    has a summary

    has a supplement

    has a transformation

    has adaptation

    has an imitation

    Expression

    isembodied in

    (is the embodiment of )

    “the physical embodiment of an expression of a

    work…all the physical objects that bear the same

    characteristics…

    …may be only a single physical exemplar…”

    has part

    Manifestation

    isexemplified by

    (exemplifies )

    has part

    “a single exemplar of a manifestation...”

    Item


    The frbr crm harmonization clarification of work concepts l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM Harmonizationclarification of Work concepts

    • The substance of Work is concepts (the idea).

      • Only through the comprehension of the concepts derivation is possible.

    • Individual Work: A self-contained set of concepts (“completed”)

    • Complex Work: Continuation (possibly by others), complements, alternatives, translations !

    • Container Work: Incorporating unaltered work.

    • The Publisher’s work is a Work !

    • Serial Work: Coherent, open ended series/serials

    E28 Conceptual Object

    F1Work

    F46 Individual Work

    F48 Container Work

    F21 Complex Work

    F43 Publication Work

    F22 Serial Work


    The frbr crm harmonization clarification of expression concepts l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM Harmonizationclarification of Expression concepts

    • The substance of Expression is signs (the “text”).

      • An Expression can be “complete”.

      • The kinds of signs/features that identify an Expression depend on the function.

    • Self-Contained ~: “Complete” – either according to author or unfinished.

    • Fragment ~: Any piece, in relation to the whole.

    • Publication ~: Text, layout, illustrations,…

    E73 Information Object

    F2 Expression

    F23 Expression

    Fragment

    F20 Self-contained Expression

    F41 Publication Expression


    Slide10 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationWork and Expression

    Self-Contained Expression = Evidence of Individual Work

    Complex Work = Coherent set of Individual Works (not “complex”)

    F1 Work

    F21 Complex Work

    R12 has member

    (is member of)

    R12 is realized in

    (realises)

    F46 Individual Work

    F46 Individual Work

    F46 Individual Work

    F46 Individual Work

    R56 is realized in

    (realises)

    R56 is realized in

    (realises)

    F20 Self-Contained Expression

    F20 Self-Contained Expression

    F20 Self-Contained Expression

    F20 Self-Contained Expression


    The frbr crm harmonization clarification of manifestation concepts l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM Harmonizationclarification of Manifestation concepts

    E55 Type

    immaterial

    Manifestation Product Type is a class

    of like items (the publication)

    F3 Manifestation Product Type

    E24 PhysicalMan-Made Stuff

    E84 Information Carrier

    An Item is single exemplar of a Manifestation

    Product Type.

    Manifestation

    Singleton

    An Manifestation Singleton is an “original”.

    It may be a feature (e.g. Inscription)

    Item

    material


    The frbr crm harmonization the externalization material immaterial l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationThe “Externalization”, material / immaterial

    E65

    Creation

    E12

    Production

    E28

    Conceptual

    Object

    F31 Expression

    Creation

    F40 Carrier

    Production

    Event

    F3 Manifestation

    Production Type

    R9 comprises

    carriers of

    R41 produced

    (was produced by)

    R49 created a

    realization of

    R22

    created

    E24

    Physical

    Man-Made

    Thing

    F1 Work

    E84

    Information

    Carrier

    F2 Expression

    R45 created

    R10 belongs

    to type

    R56 is realized in

    F23 Expression

    Fragment

    F21 Complex

    Work

    F46 Individual

    Work

    F20 Self Contained

    Expression

    F4 Manifestation

    Singleton

    F5 Item


    Slide13 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationConception and “Externalization”

    F1 Work

    R21 initiated

    P4 has time-span

    F30 Work Conception

    E52 Time

    P14 carried out by

    P7…

    E39 Actor

    P4…

    P14 carried out by

    E65 Expression Creation

    E53 Place

    P7 took place at

    R49 created a realisation of

    R22 created

    R45 created

    F2 Expression

    F4 Manifestation Singleton

    Work elaboration

    Work conception

    Expression creation

    time

    produces a work

    produces an idea

    Produces (simultaneously) an

    Expression and a Manifestation-Singleton


    Slide14 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationWork and Expression – short-cuts

    F1 Work A

    has part

    F1 Work A.2

    has part

    R49B was realised through

    (created a realisation of)

    F46 Individual Work A.2.1

    R56 is realised in

    (realises)

    F31 Expression Creation A.2.1

    R22created

    (was created by)

    R13 is realized in

    (realises)

    F2 Expression A.2.1


    The frbr crm harmonization container work what is the expression l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationContainer Work – What is the Expression?

    The collected expressions

    are integral part of the container

    The Container Work adds Expression:

    may cause Work with empty expression!

    F48 Container Work &

    F46 Individual Work

    F48 Container Work

    R13 is realized in

    (realises)

    R13 is realized in

    (realises)

    Overall Expression

    Additional Expression

    <Additional Expr.>

    R13 is realized

    in

    R13 is realized

    in

    Expression of Work X

    Work X

    Expression of Work X

    Work X

    Expression of Work Y

    Expression of Work Y

    consistent

    inconsistent


    The frbr crm harmonization publication work an identity crisis l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationPublication Work - An Identity Crisis

    F43 Publication Work

    F21 Complex Work

    “Oliver Twist” Publication Concept

    “Oliver Twist” Idea

    Publisher’s Level

    R12 has member

    (is mem ber of)

    F46 Individual Work

    R56 is realized in

    (r ealises)

    “Oliver Twist” Completed

    F45 Publication Event

    R56 is re alized in

    (real ises)

    “Oliver Twist” published!

    R55 created produ ction plan

    (was created by)

    R11B forms part of

    (is composed of)

    F41 Publication Expression

    F20 Self-Contained Expression

    “Oliver Twist”

    Publication content

    “Oliver Twist” Text

    F39 Production Plan

    “Oliver Twist” Plan

    CLR5 should carry

    (should be carr ied by)

    P128B is carried by

    (carries)

    R39B was followed by

    (foll owed)

    F3 Manifestation-Product Type

    R38 produced things of type

    (was produced by)

    “Oliver Twist” Publication

    Author’s Level

    R10B is type of

    (belongs to type)

    F4 ManifestationSingleton

    F40 Carrier

    Production Event

    “Oliver Twist” Manuscript

    R41 produced

    (was produced by

    F5 Item

    “Oliver Twist”

    Printing

    “Oliver Twist” 20th Book


    Slide17 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationManifestation Product Type - a Metaclass !

    E55 Type

    Metaclasses

    E19 Physical Object

    F3 Manifestation Product Type

    R9 comprises

    carriers of

    F5 Item

    instances

    CLP57should have number of parts

    Inherits from E19 Physical Object:

    P57 has number of parts

    P57 has number of parts

    E60 Number

    ISBN:960-86830-0-9

    Items are seen as instances of a

    particular Manifestation Product Type.

    This is simulated by property R9

    “R9 comprises carriers of” = instances

    CPL57 should have number of parts

    particulars

    1

    2

    Individual copies

    n

    3

    2

    P57 has number of parts


    Slide18 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationEquivalence Physical - Electronic Publishing

    Physical Publishing

    Electronic Publishing

    F45 Publication Event

    F45 Publication Event

    makes accessible

    R55 created produ ction plan

    (was created by)

    F41 Publication Expression

    R55 created produ ction plan

    (was created by)

    F41 Publication Expression

    F39 Production Plan

    CLR5 should carry

    (should be carr ied by)

    F39 Production Plan

    R39B was followed by

    (foll owed)

    F3 Manifestation-Product Type

    downloads

    R39B was followed by

    (foll owed)

    R38 produced things of type

    (was produced by)

    R5 carri es

    (is carried by)

    R10B is type of

    (belongs to type)

    F40 Carrier

    Production Event

    R41 produced

    (was produced by)

    F40 Carrier

    Production Event

    R41 produced

    (was produced by)

    F5 Item

    F5 Item

    F44 ?

    “copy on local

    carrier”

    “Result of an industrial process”


    Slide19 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationReproduction

    E12 Production

    F44 Reproduction Event

    R59 reproduced

    (was reproduced by)

    R59 reproduced

    (was reproduced by)

    E84 Information Carrier

    E84 Information Carrier

    “In general, the copy will have different attributes from the original…

    F44 Reproduction Event and F40 Carrier Production Event are not declared as disjoint…”


    Slide20 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationHow to identify Work?

    F3 Manifestation

    Product Type

    R32 assigned

    (was assigned by)

    F4 Manifestation-Singleton

    F36 Representative

    Manifestation Assignment

    R3 has representative manifestation product type

    (is representative manifestation product type for)

    R7 has representative manifestation-singleton

    ( is representative manifestation singleton for)

    R17 carried out by

    (performed)

    R31 assigned to

    (was assigned by)

    F28 Bibliographic Agency

    F2 Expression

    R34 assigned

    (was assigned by)

    R16 carried out by

    (performed)

    F37 Representative

    Expression Assignment

    R2B has representative expression

    (is representative expression for)

    R33 assign to

    (was assigned by)

    F21Complex

    Work


    Slide21 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationLibrary identifiers have structuring rules

    R26 used constituent

    (was used in)

    P1B identifies

    (is identifies by)

    E1 CRM Entity

    F13 Name = E41 Appellation

    R51consists of

    (forms part of)

    F14 Identifier

    R25 assigned

    (was assigned by)

    F33 Identifier Assignment

    R52B used rule

    (was the rule used in)

    F16 Identifier Rule

    R24 assigned to

    (was assigned by)


    Slide22 l.jpg

    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationSummary of new Activity Concepts

    F37 Representative Expression Assignment

    E13 Attribute Assignment

    F36 Representative Manifestation Assignment

    E7 Activity

    F33 Identifier Assignment

    E15 Identifier Assignment

    F45 Publication Event

    E65 Creation

    F30 Work Conception

    F31 Expression Creation

    E83 Type Creation

    F44 Reproduction Event

    E12 Production

    E11 Modification

    F40 Carrier production Event


    The frbr crm harmonization results summary l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationResults summary

    • Topics solved:

      • Explicit modeling of the processes behind FRBR attributes.

      • The substance of Work, Expression and Manifestation

      • Conception of a Work. What is its identity, its parts? Can a work be continued by other persons? Can it contain other Work, and in which sense?

      • Expression fragments, parts, aggregates and collections: criteria of completeness, containment, reuse and intellectual contribution.

      • What is the contribution and product of thepublisher.

      • What is the first realization of a work in a symbolic form? What is the role of a manuscript, of a digital file, a written diskette in that process?

      • The equivalence of electronic and material publishing.


    The frbr crm harmonization conclusions l.jpg
    The FRBR - CRM HarmonizationConclusions

    • The combined model CRM – FRBROO:

      • Is a coherent model of museum and library conceptualization

      • On one side enriches the CIDOC CRM with notions of the stages of intellections creation and refines its model of identifiers and the associated discourse.

      • On the other side, it makes available to FRBR the general model of historical events of the CRM.

      • clarifies and makes explicit many notions more vaguely specified in FRBR

    • Further work:

      • FRAD (Authority Data),

      • modeling equivalence with performing arts.

        SEE: http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr


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