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Lecture Outline Chapter 3. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Planning Nutritious Diets Chapter 3. Insert MyPyramid from page 62. Chapter Learning Outcomes.

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lecture outline chapter 3

LectureOutlineChapter 3

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

planning nutritious diets chapter 3
Planning Nutritious DietsChapter 3
  • Insert MyPyramid from page 62
chapter learning outcomes
Chapter Learning Outcomes
  • Identify the various dietary standards of the DRI and explain how they can be used.
  • List the 9 focus categories of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005.
  • List major food groups and identify foods that are typically in each group.
  • Use the MyPyramid Plan to develop nutritionally adequate daily menus.
  • Use the Nutrition Facts panel to make more nutritious food choices.
  • Identify nutrition-related claims the FDA allows on food and supplement labels.
quiz yourself true or false
Quiz YourselfTrue or False
  • According to the latest USDA dietary guide, fruits and vegetables are combined into one food group. T F
  • According to the recommendations of

the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, it is acceptable for certain adults to consume moderate amounts of alcoholic beverages. T F

quiz yourself true or false continued
Quiz YourselfTrue or False(continued)
  • Last week, Colin didn’t consume the recommended amount of vitamin C for a couple of days. Nevertheless, he is unlikely to develop scurvy, the vitamin C deficiency disease. T F
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans is revised annually. T F
  • The Nutrition Facts panel on a food label provides information concerning amounts of energy, fiber, and cholesterol that are in a serving of food. T F
how did you do
How Did You Do?
  • FalseAccording to the latest USDA dietary guide, fruits and vegetables are two separate food groups.
  • TrueAccording to the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005, it is acceptable for certain adults to consume moderate amounts of alcoholic beverages.
how did you do continued
How Did You Do? (continued)
  • TrueLast week, Colin didn’t consume the recommended amount of vitamin C for a couple of days. Nevertheless, he is unlikely to develop scurvy, the vitamin C deficiency disease.
  • False Dietary Guidelines for Americans is not revised annually.

5.TrueThe Nutrition Facts panel on a food label provides information concerning amounts of energy, fiber, and cholesterol that are in a serving of food.

from requirements to standards
From Requirements to Standards
  • Requirement
    • Smallest amount of a nutrient needed to maintain defined level of nutritional health
  • Requirements vary based on:
      • Age
      • Sex
      • Health status
      • Physical activity level
      • Medication/drug use
dietary reference intakes
DRIs encompass a

variety of terms

that describe

values for nutrient

Recommendations.

Insert Figure 3.1

Dietary Reference Intakes
slide10
EAR— amount of a nutrient that should meet needs of 50% of healthy people

RDA— standards for recommended daily intakes that meet needs of ~98% of healthy people

AI— assigned when no RDA can be determined. Assumes a population’s average daily nutrient intakes are adequate

UL— highest average amount that is unlikely to be harmful when consumed daily

EER— average daily energy intake that meets needs of a healthy person who is maintaining his/her weight

DRIs
how rdas are established
Scientists add a

margin of safety

amount to EAR

that allows for

individual variation.

This makes a

nutrient’s RDA high

enough to meet or

exceed needs

of ~98% of healthy

people.

Insert figure 3.2

How RDAs Are Established
establishing adequate intakes and upper limits
Nutrition scientists set

an AI for a nutrient if

there is not enough

information to

determine the RDA.

The UL is the highest

average amount of a

nutrient unlikely to harm

most people if

consumed daily.

Insert figure 3.3

Establishing Adequate Intakes and Upper Limits
applying nutrient standards
Applying Nutrient Standards

Nutrient standards are used to:

–Evaluate dietary practices

–Develop certain food products

–Provide standards for nutritional labeling purposes (Daily Values)

major food groups
Major Food Groups
  • Grouped according to naturalorigins and keynutrients

6general groups:

    • Grains
    • Milk and milk Products
    • Meat and meat Substitutes
    • Fruits
    • Vegetables
    • Oils
grains
Made from certain plants, e.g., wheat, rice, and oats

Primary macronutrients are carbohydrates and protein

Enriched grains have iron and certain B vitamins added

Whole grains provide more fiber, vitamins, and minerals than refined.

Grains
milk and milk products
Milk and products made from milk are foods that retain calcium after processing.

Excellent sources of calcium, protein, phosphorus, and

riboflavin

Not included are high-fat milk

products

Cream cheese, cream, and

butter

Milk and Milk Products
meat and meat substitutes
Animal Foods

Pros

- excellent sources of protein, iron, zinc, and B vitamins

Cons

- may be high in

saturated fat and cholesterol

Beans, eggs, nuts, and seeds are protein-rich and can

substitute for meat.

Meat and Meat Substitutes
fruits
Excellent sources of phytochemicals, folate,

potassium, and vitamin C

Whole or cut up fruits provide more fiber

than juices.

Most are very low in fat

Eat a variety of fruits,

because they vary in

vitamin and mineral

contents.

Fruits
vegetables
Vegetables vary in their nutrient and energy contents.

Often grouped according to color and starch content

Dried peas and beans may be classified as

vegetables as well as meat substitutes.

Vegetables
slide20
Oils arefats that are liquid at room temperature.

Include certain spreadable fatty foods such as mayonnaise, salad dressing, and margarine

Some guides include nuts, olives, avocados, and fatty fish in this group because they are high fat.

Oils
dietary guidelines for americans 2005
Nutrition-related lifestyle recommendations intended for healthy people over 2 yrs of age

Designed to:

Promote adequate nutrition and good health

Reduce risk of CVD, obesity, alcoholism, and other nutrition-related chronic conditions

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
dietary guidelines for americans 200523
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
  • Consume Adequate Nutrients Within

Caloric Needs

    • Eat a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages.
      • Limit intakes of added salt and sugars, alcohol, and lipids

that increase risk of CVD.

    • Adopt a nutritionally balanced eating plan.
dietary guidelines for americans 2005 continued
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005(continued)
  • Weight Management
    • Match caloric intake with calories expended for energy:
      • Eat fewer empty-calorie foods
      • Increase physical activity level
  • Physical Activity
    • Be physically active on a regular basis:
      • At least 30 min of moderate-intensity physical activity on

most days

        • ~ 60 min needed to prevent gradual weight gain
      • 60-90 min/day to maintain weight loss
dietary guidelines for americans 2005 continued25
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005(continued)
  • Food Groups to Encourage
    • Choose adequate amounts and a variety of fruits and vegetables for daily consumption.
    • Eat at least 3 oz whole-grain products daily.
    • Consume 3 cups fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products daily.
  • Fats
    • Limit total fat to 20 to 35% of calories.
    • Select foods high in unsaturated fats.
    • Consume <10% of calories from saturated fat and < 300 mg of cholesterol daily.
    • Limittrans fat intake to as low as possible.
dietary guidelines for americans 2005 continued26
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (continued)
  • Carbohydrates
    • Increase intake of fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
    • Limit added sugars (e.g., sugar, honey. and corn syrup).
    • Practice good oral hygiene.
  • Sodium and Potassium

< 1 teaspoon salt (~2300 mg Na) daily

    • Limit high-sodium canned, processed, and snack

foods.

    • Prepare foods with little salt.
    • Increase intake of potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables.
dietary guidelines for americans 2005 continued27
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005(continued)
  • Alcoholic Beverages
    • If you choose to drink alcohol, drink sensibly.
    • Those who are < 21 yrs, pregnant, lactating, or who

cannot control their intake should not drink alcohol.

  • Food Safety
    • Wash hands, food contact surfaces, fruits, and vegetables.
    • Store raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods separately.
    • Refrigerate perishable foods promptly.
    • Avoid unpasteurized milk and juices, raw or undercooked eggs, meat, fish, or poultry.
dietary guides
Food guides have been issued by USDA for over 100 yrs.

1943 — Food guide had 7 food groups

Mid-1950s — “Basic Four” food groups

1979 — “Hassle-Free Guide to Better Diet”

1995 —Food Guide Pyramid

2005 — MyPyramid

Dietary Guides
the mypyramid plan
The MyPyramid Plan
  • Interactive Internet menu planning and physical activity guide
    • 12 different nutritionally adequate dietary patterns—from 1000 to 3200 kcal
    • User provides information about his/her age, sex, weight, height, and activity level; the program calculates personalized dietary plan
inside mypyramid
Inside MyPyramid
  • Brightly colored bands represent the 6 major foods groups:
    • Grains, vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products, meat and beans, and oils
  • Discretionary calorie allowance
    • Calories remaining after recommended amounts of low-fat/low-added sugar foods from major food groups are consumed

To use MyPyramid, visitwww.mypyramid.gov

what is the exchange system
What Is the Exchange System?
  • Categorizes foods into 3 broad food groups:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Meat and meat substitutes
    • Fats
  • Providesexchange listsof specific types of foods
    • Specified amounts of food listed have similar macronutrient contents and kilocalories
food and supplement labels
Nutrition Facts

Provide information about energy and nutrient contents of packaged foods

Not required on fresh fruits and vegetables

Daily Values

Nutrient intake standards developed for labels

Food and Supplement Labels
health claims
FDA allows certain health

claims on food labels.

Claims describe

relationships between a

food, ingredient, or

supplement and reduced

risk of nutrition-related

condition.

Insert Photo 3.9

Health Claims
structure function claims
Insert Figure 3.10

FDA allows structure/

function claims such as

“calcium builds bones” or

“fiber maintains bowel

regularity.”

- Manufacturers cannot claim a nutrient, food, or supplement prevents or

treats a serious health

condition.

Structure/Function Claims
nutrient content claims
Nutrient Content Claims
  • Insert Table 3.6
other descriptive labeling terms
Other Descriptive Labeling Terms
  • Lightor lite—compared to reference food:
    • Has at least 1/3 fewer calories
    • Contains at least 1/2 the fat of the reference food
      • Lightcan also refer totexture or color
  • Natural—contains no:
    • Food colorings
    • Synthetic flavors
    • Other unnatural substances
dietary supplement labels
Supplement Facts Label

Must list product’s:

-ingredient(s)

-serving size

-amount(s) per serving,

-suggested use

-manufacturer’s name and

address

-%DV (if established)

Insert Figure 3.11

Dietary Supplement Labels
organic foods
“Organic” Definition Varies

Chemists- Substances

containing the element carbon

bonded to hydrogen

Farmers- Produced without

use of antibiotics, hormones,

synthetic fertilizers and pesticides,

genetic improvements, or

ionizing radiation

USDA- Farmers using renewable

resources and practice soil and

water conservation

Insert Figure 3.12

Organic Foods
using dietary analysis software
Dietary analysis

software and

Web sites are

quick and easy

tools to

determine

nutrient and

energy contents

of commonly

eaten foods.

Government-Sponsored

Dietary Analysis Websites

MyPyramid Tracker

www.mypyramidtracker.gov

“What’s in the Food You Eat Search Tool”

www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/

Using Dietary Analysis Software
chapter 3 highlight the melting pot
Northwestern European Influences

-UK, Scandinavia, Germany

Traditional diet provides large portions of beef or pork with potatoes.

Hispanic Influences

- Spanish or Mexican ancestry

Traditional Mexican diet: corn, beans, chili

pepper, avocado, papayas, and pineapples



Chapter 3 HighlightThe Melting Pot
chapter 3 highlight the melting pot44
Italian Influences

Traditional diet: pasta and other grains, olive oil, fish, and nuts

Major type of fat in olive oil reduces CVD risk.

African Influences

Traditional African foods include sweet potatoes, okra, and peanuts.

“Soul foods” include: sweet potato pie, fried chicken, black-eyed peas, and greens cooked with smoked pork.

Benefits: High in fiber and provide a variety of vitamins and minerals

Problems: High in fat and sodium



Chapter 3 HighlightThe Melting Pot
chapter 3 highlight the melting pot45
Asian Influences

China, Japan, Vietnam, Thailand, and Korea

Traditional diet provides large amounts of vegetables, rice, and noodles with small amounts of meat, fish, or shellfish.

Jewish Influences

Influenced by ancient religious laws

Kosher food is “clean” and fit for consumption

Typical restrictions:

No pork or fish without fins or scales

Cannot prepare or eat meat and poultry with milk or milk products



Chapter 3 HighlightThe Melting Pot
chapter 3 highlight the melting pot46
Native American Influences

Traditional native foods include wild game and vegetable crops (corn, tomatoes, and squash).

Health benefits: Low in sodium and fat, high in fiber

When Native Americans adopted typical Western diet, rates ofobesityandtype 2 diabetesincreased dramatically.



Chapter 3 HighlightThe Melting Pot
the role of diet in health
The Role of Diet in Health
  • As immigrants adopt the “American” lifestyle and become less physically active, they tend to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension.
  • Recommendations to reduce such diet-related health problems focus on:
    • Making certain dietary changes
    • Increasing physical activity