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JOURNALISM AND NEW MEDIA Ari Heinonen University of Tampere ISSS/ INSO 7 September/October 2003 The Aim Contextualise: Give background for understanding what is happening in journalism and mass communication in the Age of New Media

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journalism and new media

JOURNALISM AND NEW MEDIA

Ari Heinonen

University of Tampere

ISSS/ INSO 7

September/October 2003

the aim
The Aim
  • Contextualise: Give background for understanding what is happening in journalism and mass communication in the Age of New Media
  • Analyse: Outline the relationship of new media and journalism
  • Focus: Highlight the issues of new media journalism for further examination
the topics
The Topics
  • The basis: Journalism as a changing social phenomenon
  • Information Society and journalism
  • New media and changing journalism
  • Focus on journalistic mass communication
journalism as a changing social phenomenon
Journalism as a changing social phenomenon
  • Historicality of the journalistic profession
    • emergence of journalism and journalistic profession was connected to specific developments in society
    • as society changes the characteristics of journalism evolve as well
    • social trends that can be condensed in the term Information Society/New Media, are shaping journalism
journalism as a changing
Journalism as a changing...
  • Invention of journalism
    • Carey: industrial revolution AND "revolution in communication and popular culture”>professional communicator
    • Chalaby: news became an instrument of competition> publicists  journalists
    • Schudson: newspaper reporting - a new information gathering profession> paid reporters, organised work processes
journalism as a changing7
Journalism as a changing...
  • Evolving practices
    • working practices appear, develop, change
    • E.g.
      • reporting
      • interviewing
      • investigative reporting
    • detachment from society represented in the news
    • strive for the authority of the news
journalism as a changing8
Journalism as a changing...
  • Detaching professional identity
    • Forming the identity
      • "professional" working practises
      • professional unions
      • positioning as an object of science
    • Reflecting the identity
      • professional ethics and self-regulation (inside)
      • studying journalistic practices (outside)
    • ”objectivity”, self-sustainablity, detachment
journalism as a changing9
Journalism as a changing...

Reasonings of change 1

journalism as a changing10
Journalism as a changing...
  • Reasonings of change 2
    • Socio-cultural: audience (the public), democracy
    • Business: ”business like any business” vs. political economy
    • Technological: outside agent vs. minor variable; two-way relatiosnhip
    • Professional-normative: personal attributes, professional routines, ethics, norms/values
inf soc and journalism
Inf. Soc. and journalism...
  • Signs of change:
    • Technological: "a new technological paradigm organized around information technologies” (Castells)
    • Economic: ”information/informational economy” (Webster/Castells)
    • Occupational: occupations emerge, disappear; nature of occupations change
    • Networking logic: network as a metaphor; new limits for time and space
    • Cultural: expansion of informational content of every day life
inf soc and journalism13
Inf. Soc. and journalism...
  • Shaping the change
    • In the past:
      • Telegraph & railroad  new social processes
      • Changes in technology, economy, politics  professional journalism
    • Today:
      • Changes in the relationships of production, social class relations, power relations
      • Different society, different journalism?
inf soc and journalism14
Inf. Soc. and journalism...
  • Implications for journalism
    • New emblem of society
      • sets the tone
    • ”Enforced” development
      • practical consequencies in media
    • Importance of technology
      • journalism from technological perspective
new media and changing
New media and changing...
  • Topics
    • new media as technology discourse
    • concept of new media
    • characterising new media
      • technical basis
      • communication features
new media and changing17
New media and changing...
  • New media as technology discourse
    • in talk about new media and journalism, technology gives the framework
    • talking about journalism as a function to technology
    • technological development has always been present in journalism
    • new media is not the only perspective to journalism
new media and changing18
New media and changing...
  • Vague concept
    • used quite carelessly
    • new? new is always relative
    • Marvin:“When old technologies were new”
    • Standage: ”The Victorian Internet”
    • new media set in the context of old media, but re-form media use and practices
    • Fidler: ”Mediamorphosis”
    • ”NEW MEDIA” – will do!
new media and changing19
New media and changing...
  • Defining new media I
    • Technical basis of new media
      • digitalisation
      • networking
      • computer mediation
    • Communication features of new media
new media and changing20
New media and changing...
  • Digitalisation
    • bits and bytes, ones and zeros
    • ”the development of digital language is likely to have a profound transformational effect on human society”(Fidler)
    • "We can see the formation of...an interactive, digital hypertext, combining everything from everywhere. All cultural expressions are articulated in this text, in which television programmes, cultural activities, video, music, radio, print, and artistic expressions interact. Because all this is organised in a digital language, it can be mixed recombined, recomposed and reorganised." (Castells)
slide21

New media and changing...

ANALOGUE

PRODUCTION

moving image

audio

text

television

(movie)

DISTIRBUTION

radio

paper

radio-vastaanotin

television-set

news-paper

radio-set

RECEPTION

slide22

New media and changing...

DIGITAL

PRODUCTION

moving image

audio

text

d i g i t a l i s a t i o n

DISTIRBUTION

(The Net)

newsp.

radio

wap

television

RECEPTION

digi-tv

integrated receiver (”computer”)

new media and changing23
New media and changing...
  • Networking
    • digitised contents can be transferred via information networks
  • Computer mediation
    • information processing
    • communication
    • ” the tool of expression ” (Castells)
new media and changing24
New media and changing...
  • Defining new media II
    • Technical basis of new media
    • Communication features of new media
      • multimedia
      • hypertext
      • personalisation
      • multiple channel publishing
      • location sensitivity / mobility
      • widened time-frame
      • interactivity
      • globality
new media and changing25
New media and changing...
  • Multimedia
    • text, audio, moving image, graphics  bits
    • contents can be manipulated
    • final product an entity with different content elements

http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2002/graficos/salud/archivo.html

new media and changing26
New media and changing...
  • Hypertext
    • ”nonlinear documents in which text nodes are linked to other relevant pieces of text, forming a textual network"(Strate)
    • depth, context, details in story-telling

http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/news/story/0,9830,880412,00.html

new media and changing27
New media and changing...
  • Personalisation
    • traditional mass media: duplicatedproducts
    • new media: unique relationship to the content
    • production of news contents still bulk-work

 http://my.yahoo.com/

new media and changing28
New media and changing...
  • Multiple channel publishing
    • increasing variety of receivers requires that contents are produced so that they actually can be distributed and received using several publishing platforms
    • problems: different content types have different requirements

 IMU2 project

new media and changing33
New media and changing...
  • Location sensitivity / mobility
    • two-way, multimedia communication settings even while on the move
    • contents that are location sensitive
    • http://compcult.media.mit.edu/afghan_x/
    • http://www.beyond2000.com/news/Mar_02/story_1344.html
new media and changing35
New media and changing...
  • Widened time-frame
    • traditional media: instantenous, throw-away
    • online archives, search agents
    • IHT > Search http://www.iht.com
new media and changing36
New media and changing...
  • Interactivity
    • information networks: two-way channels
    • less clear who is sender, who is receiver
    • challenges detached identity of journalism

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/communicate/

new media and changing38
New media and changing...
  • Globality
    • global information networks
    • world-wide audiences
    • BUT: cultural barriers
    • many-to-many global communication

 http://www.indymedia.org/publish.php3