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HIST 253 History of the United States since 1877. Elena Razlogova Office: LB 1041-11 Email: erazlogo@alcor.concordia.ca Course website: http://digitalhistory.concordia.ca/courses/hist253w08. “I am Canadian” Molson beer commercial, April 2000.

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hist 253 history of the united states since 1877
HIST 253History of the United States since 1877

Elena Razlogova

Office: LB 1041-11

Email: erazlogo@alcor.concordia.ca

Course website: http://digitalhistory.concordia.ca/courses/hist253w08

i am canadian molson beer commercial april 20001
“I am Canadian” Molson beer commercial, April 2000

What makes United States different from Canada:

Presidents (& federal power)

Policing (of labor and radicalism)

Assimilation (of immigrants)

Obviously, history is more complicated than that.

pre 1877 timeline
Pre-1877 Timeline

1861-1865 Civil War

1863 Emancipation Proclamation

1863-1877 Reconstruction

1866 Civil Rights Bill passed over President Johnson’s veto

1866 Ku Klux Klan established

1868 14th Amendment to the Constitution ratified (equal protection under law)

1870 15th Amendment ratified (right to vote)

1877 Compromize between President Hayes and Southern Democrats

slide7

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877: “Colonel Agramonte’s Cavalry Charging on the Mob, at the Halstead street Viaduct, in Chicago, July 16,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, August 11, 1877

outline for today
Outline for Today:

1. Industrialization & Railroads

2. Corporate Power

3. Social Darwinism

4. Labor Unrest

slide13
Capital: The race is on: "Admiral" Jim Fisk of the ERIE vs. Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt New York Central Lines.
slide14
Labor: The Celebration of the Meeting of the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads at Promontory Point, Utah, May 10, 1869.
slide17
Population growth: “Great Railway Station at Chicago--Departure of a Train,” Appleton’s Journal, 1870 supplement
corporations had the same rights as persons
Corporations had the same rights as persons

The 14th amendment:

“Section. 1. …No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

US Supreme Court, 1886, Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific RR co.

“The defendant Corporations are persons within the intent of the clause in section 1 of the Fourteen Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids a State to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”

herbert spencer author of social darwinist doctrines of survival of the fittest and laissez faire
Herbert Spencer, author of social Darwinist doctrines of “survival of the fittest and “laissez faire”
slide31

Andrew Carnegie, Scottish immigrant who built a “vertically integrated” steel company that dominated the steel industry in the laste 19th century

louis linng upon being convicted of haymarket bombing
Louis Linng, upon being convicted of Haymarket bombing

“What is anarchy? … the fact is, that at every attempt to wield the ballot, at every endeavor to combine the efforts of workingmen, you have displayed the brutal violence of the police club, and this is why I have recommended rude force, to combat the ruder force of the police.

Perhaps you think, ‘you’ll throw no more bombs’; but let me assure you I die happy on the gallows, so confident am I that the hundreds and thousands to whom I have spoken will remember my words; and when you shall have hanged us, then—mark my words—they will do the bombthrowing!”

post 1877 industrialization timeline
Post-1877 Industrialization Timeline

1859 Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species

1864 Herbert Spencer’s Principles of Biology

1873 Panic of 1873

1873 Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner’s Gilded Age

1877 Hayes’s Compromise and end of Reconstruction

1877 Great Railroad Strike

1883 Railroad companies create four time zones

1883 William Graham Sumner’s What Social Classes Owe to Each Other

1886 Haymarket affair

1886 Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific Railroad Company

1893-1894 Pullman Strike

1899 Thorstein Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class

Themes:

Industrialization

Corporate Power

Social Darwinism

Labor Unrest

u s presidents 1877 present
U.S. Presidents, 1877-Present

Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877-1881

James Garfield, 1881

Chester Arthur, 1881-1885

Grover Cleveland, 1885-1889

Benjamin Harrison, 1889-1993

Grover Cleveland, 1993-1997

William McKinley, 1897-1901

Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-1909

William H. Taft, 1909-1913

Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921

Warren Harding, 1921-1923

Calvin Coolidge, 1923-1929

Herbert Hoover, 1929-1933

Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945

Harry Truman, 1945-1953

Dwight Eisenhower, 1953-1961

John F. Kennedy, 1961-1963

Lyndon Johnson, 1963-1969

Richard Nixon, 1969-1974

Gerald Ford, 1974-77

Jimmy Carter, 1977-1981

Ronald Reagan, 1981-1989

George H.W. Bush, 1989-1993

William J. Clinton, 1993-2001

George W. Bush, 2001-present