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E-Journal Usage Study and Scholarly Communication Using Transaction Log Analysis: A Case Study of E-Journal (Full-Text) Download Patterns of NAL Scientists and Engineers *R Guruprasad, +Khaiser Nikam #M Gopinath Rao *Vidyadhar Mudkavi

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E-Journal Usage Study and Scholarly CommunicationUsing Transaction Log Analysis: A Case Study of E-Journal (Full-Text) Download Patterns of NAL Scientists and Engineers*R Guruprasad, +Khaiser Nikam

#M Gopinath Rao *Vidyadhar Mudkavi

*National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore +Dept. of Studies, Library and Information Science, University of Mysore #College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore

Paper Presentation at the 7th International Convention on Automation of Libraries in Education and Research, Theme: E-Content Management: Challenges and Strategies, Pondicherry University: 25-27, February 2009.

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The Invention of the Printing Press

Johannes Gutenberg (1395 – 1468 )

l 1455 AD belonged to Johannes Gutenberg, the German Goldsmith and Printer (Mainz,Germany)l His invention of the first movable printing press – considered as one of Western Civilization’s greatest inventionsl American team researching World History over the last centuries declared him – ‘Man of the Millennium’l Jon Man on his book on Gutenberg aptly coined the titled – ‘How one man remade the world with words’l According to Mark Twain, Gutenberg’s invention – ‘incomparably the greatest event in the history of the World’l What took months by hand in 1450 to copy a book shot up to 500 copies to be produced in a Week

A Single Obscure Artisan: Instrumental in the changing the course of History

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The Invention of the Printing Press

l The invention effectively broke the monopoly, the aristrocracy, the monarchy maintained by the Churches in publishing informationl This invention had an immediate radical change, it brought in the Renaissance (or the Reformation) which directly led to the ‘Modern Age’lMost importantly, it made dissemination of information easy, affordable and accessible to the common man.l By 1500 A.D. million of books were being printed ranging from literature, poetry, to scientific manuscripts, and most importantly in ‘Vernacular’.

A Typical ‘Renaissance ‘ Clothing

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The Invention of the Printing Press

lHis Major Work: The Gutenberg Bible: (also known as 42 line bible), acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality. In his period 200 copies of the Bible were printed.l Specific Contributions to Printing:u Invention of a process for a mass producing moving typeu The use of oil based ink in the printing processu Use of a Wooden Printing Press

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The Invention of the Printing Press

If Gutenberg were alive today…..probably, he would have said this about himself…

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A Brief History of Scholarly Electronic Communication And The Evolution of The Scholarly Scientific Journals Late 17th Century…

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A Brief History of Scholarly Electronic Communication: Evolution of Scholarly Journals (Scientific)

lUntil late 17th century, communication between scholars depended heavily on social contacts and by attending meetings arranged by learned societies (e.g. the Royal Society)l Membership to these societies increased graduallyl Many could not attend these meetings, so the Proceedings (usually a record of the last meeting) became a place to publish papersl These eventually evolved into scholarly journalsl First peer-reviewed journals: (a) ‘Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society’, (b) ‘Le Journal Des Scavans’ (both published in 1665)

Google always comes to your rescue…

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A Brief History of Scholarly Electronic Communication: Evolution of Scholarly Journals (Scientific)

l 19th century Explosion in the number of journals produced: caused by increased specialization and diversification of academic researchl Means of producing mass publications was in place: (cheap wood pulp based paper)lElsevier Scientific Publishing began publishing engineering journals way back as 1884l After WW.II, Robert Maxwell Pioneered move: the Pergamon Press (aimed towards mass commercial publication).

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A Brief History of Scholarly Electronic Communication: Evolution of Scholarly Journals (Scientific)

l By 1960, commercial publishers occupied a major part of the marketl By the end of the 17th Century, there were about 30 to 90 scientific and medical journals and this rose to 750 by the end of the 18th Century lFirst prototype e-journal was in 1976, however the booming time for electronic journals was during the period 1990-1999l Currently, the number of scientific and abstract journals published worldwide is estimated over 100,000. This has grown steadily during the second half of the 20th Century.

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A Brief History of Scholarly Electronic Communication: Evolution of Scholarly Journals (Scientific)

l Kessler [1967], says that “although scientific journals have flaws, they have been said to be the “most successful and ubiquitous carriers of scientific information in the entire history of science”.l To substantiate this, hundreds of studies have demonstrated their use, usefulness and value.l In a survey conducted from 1993 to 1998, scientists average 120 readings of scholarly articles per year.l On an average, scientists spend over 100 hours per year reading scholarly articles

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The Coming of the Web….

"The Internet is not a thing, a place, a single technology, or a mode of governance. It is an agreement.“John Gage, Director of Science, Sun Microsystems, Inc.

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The Coming of the Web….

“It’s (the Internet) the most fundamental shift since Gutenberg. The Internet is basically a Space and Time destroyer. It shrinks distance and time to zero. It’s as if all the world’s scientists were in one room, available at one computer. Needless to say this is having a profound impact on the way science is done” – Astrophysicist,Larry Starr, (Hallmark, 1995).

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The Coming of the Web:Mushrooming of E-Journals

l If Gutenberg’s invention of movable printing Press was a great leap towards information dissemination and communication, then the invention of the Web is equally a great leap towards electronic scholarly communicationl According to Prof. Steven Harnad, Univ. Quebec (Montreal) ‘the arrival of electronic communication is the 4th revolution in the means of production of knowledge: afterspoken language, written language and the Printing Press’

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Role of Electronic Media in Supporting Scholarly Electronic Communication

lScholarly electronic communication refers to distribution of scholarly articles, papers and messages by electronic means as opposed to their distribution by paper medial Kling and McKim [2000] say ‘that the shift towards use of electronic media in scholarly communication appears to bean inescapable path’l They add, ‘the use of electronic media to support scientific communication isone of the major shifts of practice of science in this eralToday, the Internet is the primary medium of this Scholarly Communication

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Coming of Age of E-Journals

l Coming of age of Electronic Journals has altered the way scholarly information is disseminated throughout the worldlE-journals have not only affected the way information is spread, but the way information is acquired and how scientific researcher seek that needed informationl Today, scientists have adopted electronic journals because of quick, convenient access from their desktopsl Very little effort is required to retrieve them

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Information Seeking Patterns of Scientists

l Surveys from 1993 to 1998 show that scientists identify articles they read by browsing through journal issues or bound volumes (62% of readings are identified this way)l Automated searches accounts for 12%l Having other persons tell them about the articles amounts to 11%l Using citations found in other articles, books etc.. Adds up to 9%l Current awareness services, printed indexes, and so on fills the remaining 6%l The same study indicates during 1993 to 1998, scientists surveyed average about 120 readings of scholarly articles per year.

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Scientific Scholarly Journals: What the trends reflect?

lSince their birth in the 17th century, scientific scholarly journals have become the most sought out type of publication, and, for most fields of science – ‘the most inevitable and single most channel of scientific communication’l Over the last 40 years, numerous studies on scientific journals indicate that: u Journals are extensively readu The information they contain is extremely useful for research, teaching and lifelong learning; u Extremely valuable in terms of favourable outcomes from its use

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NAL / CSIR / NISCAIR

l National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL)u Constituent of CSIRu India’s premier civil R&D establishment in aeronautics and allied disciplinesu Vision Statement-”development of aerospace technologies with a strong science content and with a view of their practical application to the design and construction of flight vehicles”u Staff strength: 1250 with about 400 full-fledged R&D professionals (over 100 Ph.D.’s)u Through NISCAIR have been provided unique facility to access almost 3316 international e-journals from 11 key publishersl CSIR, New Delhiu Constituted in 1942, premier R&D Organization in Indiau Today, one of the world’s largest publicly funded R&D Organizations having linkages to academia, R&D Organizations and Industry.

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NAL / CSIR / NISCAIR

l National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR)u Constituent units of CSIR in the area of Information Scienceu NISCAIR provides access to 4042 world class e-journals to all S&T personnel of the CSIR fraternityu Right at their Desktops through this Consortia u Has tied up with 11 popular international publishersl Aim of this Consortia:u Strengthen the pooling, sharing and electronically accessing the CSIR library resourcesu Provide access to World S&T literature through the CSIR labs

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What are Web-Log or Transaction Log Analysis?

lThis methodology has immense potential for studying online journal’s use and their user’s information seeking behaviourl Before advent of online journals, most of studies on journal usage were based on (a) Citation Analysis, (b) re-shelving data or (c) QuestionnairelLimitations: (a) Citation Analysis: does not represent all of journal usage as authors do not cite all the articles they read, moreover ‘not every journal reader is an author’ (b) Re-Shelving Data: Not accurate, not possible to distinguish between the use of individual articles or the whole journal (c) Questionnaire: based studies rely heavily on what people think they do or might do – not what they actually do. This could end up in misinterpretationsl Widespread use of computer and network technologies had led to a New Methodology: WLA or the TLAu Computers record or log all user transactions in a plain text file called “transaction log”

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What are Web-Log or Transaction Log Analysis?

u Log files contain data about many of the details of the users’ interaction with the systeml Hence some researchers have adopted log analysis to find out about the use of electronic journals in terms of both volume and patterns of usel Intention of the WLA or TLA is multi-purpose:u One can determine overall web site trafficu Also location of users, portions of the site accessedu Number of document downloadslIhe TLA Technique:u Web servers automatically generate 4 different log files: (a) access logs (e.g. hits), (b) agent log (e.g. browser, operating system), (c) error log (download aborts), referrer logs (e.g. referring links)u These log files size can range from 1 KB to 100 MB (depending upon traffic on a particular site)

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What are Web-Log or Transaction Log Analysis?

lIhe TLA Technique (contd..u Distinction between a hit and an access is critical to understanding the type of data contained in these files.u A hit is any file from a Web site that a user downloadsu Download of a Web page with 6 images on accounts for 7 hits (6 images + 1 text)u An Access (or a page hit) is an entire page download regardless of the number of images, sounds, or movies on the page. u Download of a Web page with 6 images accounts for only 1 access.l Deep Log Analysis Method (DLA) came later on to overcome pitfalls of TLAu Nicholas (2003, 2005) conducted a series of studies on Emerald and Blackwell electronic journals to study in depth the information seeking behaviour of the users.

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What are Web-Log or Transaction Log Analysis?

l Salient Features of DLA:u Study of ‘repeat users’ to the same site u Use of SPSS (statistical analysis package) to analyze raw log datau Enriching log data with demographic data, such as user data gathered from the subscription of publishersu Paying special attention to ‘returnees’ – users who come back to use the servicel Usefulness of Log Studiesu Particularly helpful in understanding the searching and browsing behaviour of e-journal’s users.u Findings of eJUST project on Journal’s Home Page and PubMed revealed three very common seeking patterns:q Journal homepage – TOC – HTML full text – PDF full textqPubMed – HTML full text – PDF full textq Journal homepage – search – HTML full text – PDF full text

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What are Web-Log or Transaction Log Analysis?

lFindings of Log Studies:u Findings showed that most requests were for full text in HTMLu Followed by requesting the full text in PDFu Final goal of most visits was to take away a PDF version of an article.

Data Source: www.niscair.res.in

Sample Web Log Data from the NISCAIR Web Server

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Findings From Full-Text Downloads of E-Journals of NAL Scientists and Engineers, Period: (2005 – 2007)

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Data Source: www.niscair.res.in

Figure 1: Highlights the number of Scientific Journals available for E-Access through the NAL-CSIR-NISCAIR E-Conglomerate.

lThe maximum number of e-journals for the conglomerate is from Elsevier, followed by Springer and T & F. lWiley and Blackwell e-journals are also available in good number.lJournals from ASME and AIP are the lowest.lThere are 13 publishers whose e-journals are available for e-access for the conglomerate.

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Data Source: www.niscair.res.in

Figure -2: List of CSIR Labs Having Access to the following International Scientific Journal Publishers through the CSIR/NISCAIR E-Conglomerate

lThere are 42 CSIR labs which have access to 8 e-publishers from this conglomerate l40 CSIR labs have e-access to T & F and 35 labs have e-access to Indian Standardsl33 CSIR labs have e-access to ASTM Standards and 32 labs e-access to Blackwelll22 CSIR labs have e-access to Emerald and CUPlOnly 11 CSIR labs have e-access to ASME

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Data Source: www.icast.org.in

Figure -3: NAL Scientists access to additional E-Journals through NAL-ICAST Gateway

lNAL scientists have e-access to 1839 e-journals from Elsevier and 1600 e-journals from DOAJ and 1312 e-journals from Springer lA moderate number of e-journals for e-access belong to Blackwell, Taylor and Francis and WileylNAL scientists have open access to 700 e-journals through ICAST Gateway lThe minimum of e-journals for which e-access is available is for publishers AIAA and World Science.

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Data Source: www.niscair.res.in

Table – 1, 2, 3: Highlights the full-text usage statistics of E-Journals by NAL Scientists for the Years 2005, 2006, 2007.

Table-1: Year 2005

ACS=American Chemical Society, AIP=American Institute of Physics, ASME= American Society of Mechanical Engineers, CUP=Cambridge University Press, RSC=Royal Society of Chemistry

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Figure – 4: Year 2005: NAL Full-Text Download Statistics: All Publishers

Inferred by Authors

l 79% of full-text downloads for the Year 2005 are from journals published by Elsevierl Only 7% of full-text downloads for the same year are from journals published by Wiley l 4% each of full-text downloads are from publishers Springer, AIP and ASMEl Only 1% each of full-text downloads are from publishers ACS and CUP

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Data Source: www.niscair.res.in

Table – 1, 2, 3: Highlights the full-text usage statistics of E-Journals by NAL Scientists for the Years 2005, 2006, 2007.

Table-2: Year 2006

ACS=American Chemical Society, AIP=American Institute of Physics, ASME= American Society of Mechanical Engineers, CUP=Cambridge University Press, RSC=Royal Society of Chemistry, T & F= Taylor and Francis, OUP=Oxford University Press

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Figure – 5: Year 2006: NAL Full-Text Download Statistics: All Publishers

Inferred by Authors

l 79% of full-text downloads for the Year 2006 are from journals published by Elsevierl 5% each of full-text downloads are from publishers Springer, Wiley and AIPl 3% of full-text downloads are from publisher ASMEl 2% of full-text downloads are from publisher Taylor and Francisl The least percentage of full-text downloads are from the publisher CUP

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Table – 1, 2, 3: Highlights the full-text usage statistics of E-Journals by NAL Scientists for the Years 2005, 2006, 2007.

Data Source: www.niscair.res.in

Table-3: Year 2007

ACS=American Chemical Society, AIP=American Institute of Physics, ASME= American Society of Mechanical Engineers, CUP=Cambridge University Press, RSC=Royal Society of Chemistry, T & F= Taylor and Francis, ASCE=American Society of Civil Engineers. Download statistics of ACS, AIP, ASME, CUP have not been tabulated for 2007 because of non-availability of data

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Figure – 6: Year 2007: NAL Full-Text Download Statistics: All Publishers

Inferred by Authors

l 84% of full-text downloads for the Year 2007 are from journals published by Elsevierl 8% of full-text downloads are from the publisher Wiley l 7% of full-text downloads are from publisher Springerl Minimum percentage of full-text downloads are from the publisher RSCl Download statistics for the following publishers, namely, ACS, AIP, ASME and CUP for the Year 2007 is not available.

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Inferred by Authors

Table – 4: Highlights the consolidated monthly total downloads, Publisher Wise for the Years 2005, 2006, 2007.

Consolidated statistics for ACS, AIP, ASME, CUP have not been tabulated for 2007 as data is not available.

l Chi-Square testwas applied to test whether there is independence between the years and the publishersl The calculated value of Chi-Square was found to be 510.6, which is highly significant. l Hence we conclude that for the full-text downloads data the years and the publishers are not independentl This Chi-Square test was carried out for only those publishers (4 in number) for which the data was available for all the three years (2005-2007).

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Inferred by Authors

Table – 5: Highlights the total number of downloads (Month Wise, All Publishers) for the Years 2005, 2006, 2007.

lFrom this table it is observed that the mean number (per-month) of full-text downloads for the above three years was found to be different through Kruskal Wallis test of ‘One Way Analysis of Variance’ at 1% level of significance.

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Findings from Full-Text Download Statistics of NAL Scientists and Engineers

Inferred by Authors

Figure – 7: Line Graph: Full-Text Usage Statistics: Years, 2005, 2006, 2007

l In 2005, full-text usage varied between 1561 in the month of January to 2661 in the month of December with a peak of 2752 in the month of March, 2005. l In 2006, the number of full-text usage varied little with 3625 in the month of January to 3675 in the month of December with a peak of 3941 in the month of February, 2006. l In 2007, the full-text download increased with 4729 in the month of January to a maximum of 6529 in the month of March and 6543 in the month of August and declined to a value of 3980 in the month of December 2007.

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Limitations of our Study

lFull-text download patterns analyzed in this paper are only for the last 3 years (2005-2007). Data prior to this is unavailable.lReliability of the data is to the extent what NISCAIR server has put up in their web-site.lAccess to NISCAIR full-text download statistics is IP based, hence no one else apart from CSIR scientists have access to this data. To that extent the data is unfiltered, pure, non-intrusive.

l The Chi-Square test was carried out for only those publishers (4 in number) for which the data was available for all the three years (2005-2007).Benefits..l This paper would greatly facilitate my final Ph.D. thesis work as ‘Web Log Techniques’ are one of the reliable methodologies or tools available to study the ‘on-line journals usage patterns and the user’s Information Seeking Behaviour Patterns’.l Very little ‘Indian Studies’ have been carried out and documented in this area.

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Concluding Remarks

l The coming of age of the electronic journals has altered the way scholarly information is disseminated throughout the world [22], but also the way in which information is acquired and how scientific researchers seek that needed information.l Today, most Scientists have access to full-text e-journals for their access. And, in most cases, this facility is provided right at their desktops.l We discuss in this paper two popular methodologies that has emerged to study online journal usage and scholarly information seeking behaviour [5], namely: (a) WLA/TLA and (b) Deep Log Analysis. l In this paper, we present the analysis of data (2005-2007) of full-text e-journal downloads of NAL Scientists and Engineers. Data Analyzed from NISCAIR, CSIR Server.

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Concluding Remarks

l The major findings that we would like to highlight in this paper are:

u The mean number (per-month) of full-text downloads for the above three years was found to be different through Kruskal Wallis test of ‘One Way Analysis of Variance’ at 1% level of significance andu Chi-Square test was applied on this data to test whether there is independence between the years and the publishers. The calculated value of Chi-Square was found to be 510.6, which is highly significant. Hence we conclude that for the full-text downloads data, the years and the publishers are not independent. u Chi-Square test was carried out with only with 4 publishers for which the full-text data was available for all the three years (2005, 2006, 2007).

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References…

1.  Tenopir, C and King, D W (2000), “Towards Electronic Journals: Realities for Scientists, Librarians, and Publishers, Psycoloquy: 11 (084) electronic journals (1) [Special Libraries Association 2000, xxii+488 pp.

2. Garvey, William D (1979), “Communication: The Essence of Science.” Oxford Pergamon Press.

3.   Rob Kling, Ewa Callahan (2005), “Electronic Journals, the Internet, and Scholarly Communication”, Indiana University, Bloomington, ARIST, 37(1), pp.127-177.

4. Okerson, A. (2000). Are we there yet? Online e-resources ten years after. Library, Dends, 48,671-694.

5.  Hamid R. Jamali, David Nicholas and Paul Huntington (2005), “The use and users of scholarly e-journals: a review of log analysis studies”, CIBER, School of Library, Archive and Information Studies, University College, London, London, UK, ASLIB Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 57(6).

6. Nicholas, D., Huttington, P. and Watkinson, A. (2003), “Digital journals, Big Deals and Online searching behaviour: a pilot study”, ASLIB Proceedings, 55(1/2), pp. 84-109.

7. Nicholas, D., Huntington, P. and Watkinson, A (2005). “Scholarly journal usage: the results of deep log analysis”, Journal of Documentation, 61(2), pp.246-80.

8.  Nicholas, D., Huttington, P., Watkinson, A. and Jamali, H. R. (2005), “The use of digital scholarly journals and their information seeking behaviour: what deep log analysis and usage data can disclose”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(12).

9.   Morse, D. H. and Clintworth, W. A. (2000), “Comparing patterns of print and electronic journal use in an academic health science library”, Issues in Science and Technology Librariananship, Vol.28, available at:www.istl.org/00- fall/refereed.html.

10. Davis, P. and Solla, L. (2003), “An IP-level analysis of usage statistics for electronic journals in chemistry: making inferences about user behaviour”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54(11), pp. 1062-8.

11. Davis, P.M. (2002), “Patterns in electronic journal usage: challenging the composition of geographic consortia”, College and Research Libraries, 63(6), pp. 484-97.

12 Ke, H., Kwakkelaar, R., Tai, Y. and Chen, L. (2002), “Exploring behaviour of e-journal users in science and technology: transaction log analysis of Elsever’s ScienceDirect OnSite in Taiwan”, Library and Information Science Research, 24(3), pp. 265-91.

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References…

  • Tenopir, C. (2003), “Use and users of electronic library resources: an overview and analysis of recent research studies”, Report for the Council on Library and Information Resources, August 2003, available at:www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub120/pub120.pdf (accessed 20 March 2005).
  • Tenner, E. and Zheng Ye, Y. (1999), “End-user acceptance of electronic journals: a case study from a major academic research library”, Technical Services Quarterly, 17(2), pp. 1-14.
  • Worlock, K. (2002), “Electronic journals: user realities – the truth about content usage among the STM community”, Learned Publishing, 15(3), pp. 223-6.
  • Davis, P.M. (2004), “For electronic journals, total download can predict number of users”, Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 4(3), pp. 379-92.
  • National Aerospace Laboratories, www.nal.res.in.
  • www.csir.res.in
  • www.niscair.res.in
  • Kling, R., & McKim, G. (1997). A typology for electronic journals: Characterizing scholarly journals by their distribution forms, (Working Paper No.WP-97-07), Indiana University, Bloomington, Center for Social Informatics. Retrieved, November 16,2001, from http://www.slis.indiana.eddcsi/wp97-07.html
  •   Kessler, M. M. (1967), “Some very general design considerations”. In TP system report, Appendix H. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • Amy C Gleeson (2001), “Information seeking behaviour of scientists and their adaptation to electronic journals”, Masters paper for the M.S. in Library Science degree, School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

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Acknowledgements

u Dr A R Upadhya, Director, NAL for all the kind encouragement to approval for presenting this paper.u Dr Ranjan Moodithaya, Head, KTMD for kind support and according necessary approvals.u Dr M N Satyanarayana, Jt. Head, KTMD for kind support and according necessary approvals. u Mr Prakash Chand, Scientist-in-charge NISCAIR / CSIR e-journal conglomerate and his colleagues for allowing access to e-journal full-text download data.u Mr Prem Chand, Sc. D (Lib.Sc.) INFLIBNET and his editorial team for stringent review of our paper and final acceptance. u Dr R Samyuktha, Organizing Secretary and her able team for all the excellent arrangements and audio-visual logistics support.u Dr Khaiser Nikam, Chairperson, DOS, LIS and Ph.D. Guide for permitting me to write this paper and providing me an excellent opportunity to present the same amidst such a distinguished gathering.

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Acknowledgements

u Prof. V G Talwar, Vice Chancellor, Mysore University for providing excellent research facilities for all Doctoral students.u Prof. Shalini R Urs, Professor and Executive Director, ISIM u Dr Mallinath Kumbar, Reader u Dr M Chandrashekara, Reader u Dr Y Venkatesha, Reader and u Dr N S Harinarayana, Reader (DOS, LIS, Univ. Mysore) for their overwhelming support in all my literary interactions with them at the University of Mysore.

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About the Authors……

Mr R Guruprasad, Ph.D. Research Scholar, DOS, LIS, University of Mysore and Scientist, Knowledge and Technology Management Division (KTMD), National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore – 560 017. Email: gprasad@nal.res.in, gprasad@css.nal.res.inDr Khaiser Nikam, Ph.D. Research Guide, DOS, LIS, University of Mysore and Chairperson, DOS, LIS, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 570 006

Email: khaiser.nikam@gmail.comDr M Gopinath Rao, Professor of Statistics, College of Agriculture, GKVK, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore.

Email: mgrao2000@rediffmail.com

Dr Vidyadhar Y Mudkavi, Head, Computational and Theoretical Fluid Dynamics Division (CTFD), National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore – 560 017, Email: vm@ctfd.cmmacs.ernet.in

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