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GERM 3560 New German Cinema Situation after the war Germany left completely ruined Allied control of production: West decartelisation (break up of UFA) East Centralisation -DEFA Trümmerfilme Influence of Italian Neorealism introverted self scrutiny 1950s

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germ 3560

GERM 3560

New German Cinema

situation after the war
Situation after the war
  • Germany left completely ruined
  • Allied control of production:
  • West
    • decartelisation (break up of UFA)
  • East
    • Centralisation -DEFA
tr mmerfilme
Trümmerfilme
  • Influence of Italian Neorealism
  • introverted self scrutiny
1950s
1950s
  • Host of small production companies licensed: chasing the same money
  • Hollywood reruns: by 1951 200 American films annually
  • No Stunde Null in German filmmaking: 40% of directors active during NS
1950s7
1950s
  • Two Major Production Strands
    • Heimatfilme
    • Pornography
emergence of the new german cinema
Emergence of the New German Cinema
  • 1961- ‘death’ of German cinema
    • no Federal film prize awarded
  • 1962 Oberhausen Manifesto
  • Key issue
    • German film must be funded.
    • Must be about aesthetics not commercial success.
emergence of the new german cinema10
Emergence of the New German Cinema
  • 1965 Kuratorium Junger Deutscher Film
  • Young German Film
    • Alexander Kluge/Werner Herzog/ Edgar Reitz
    • Low budget
    • Importance of Film Schools
emergence of the new german cinema12
Emergence of the New German Cinema
  • ‘Opa-kino’ strikes back
  • New film crisis
  • 1971 Filmverlag der Autoren in set up
    • Using Television and other public funding
    • Alexander Kluge/Wim Wenders/Edgar Reitz and Rainer Werner Fassbinder
effects of funding system
Effects of funding system
  • No need to raise capital on the open market
  • More artistic freedom, yet also dependence on whims of governments and prize juries
  • Low production values:
    • capital cannot be recouped at the box office
effects of funding system14
Effects of funding system
  • Changes to Filmförderunganstalt:
    • less good for New German Cinema (rewards previous success)
    • Since 1983: more commercial
    • State prizes and regional first-film subsidies
autorenkino
Autorenkino
  • Filmmakers as ‘authors’
  • ‘Sensibilist’ cinema
  • Romanticism: national, irrational, metaphysical
  • Government policy: filmmaking as Kultur (Kultur and national identity)
  • Influence of filmmakers in political and cultural debates
television
Television
  • Alternative distribution network
  • TV production made integral to various film subsidies bills
  • Public service function of TV: form and content of politcally-engaged films
  • Smaller productions
  • Team-working: women directors
  • Less reliance on special effects
  • Cross-over between TV and filmmaking
  • Later adopted in other countries (C4)
some themes
Some Themes
  • The effects of the Nazi period on postwar German society
    • The Student Movement and the legacy of 1968
slide19

Some Themes

Relationship to American culture

Wim Wender’s Kings of the Road

‘The Yanks have colonised our subconscious’.

aesthetics
Aesthetics
  • ‘Avant-garde’?
  • ‘Hollywood Conventions’?
reception
Reception
  • Failure at Home/success abroad
  • Who were the films made for?
  • Status of the filmmaker?
  • Relationship to the state?
  • Relationship to television?
  • What sort of films were these?