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F OREST T REE I MPROVEMENT. DR. AB. RASIP BIN AB. GHANI DIRECTOR FOREST PLANTATION PROGRAMME BIOTECHNOLOGY DIVISION FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE MALAYSIA (FRIM) KEPONG, 52109 SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN, MALAYSIA TEL: +603-62797097 FAX: +603-62731427 EMAIL: rasip@frim.gov.my.

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slide1

FOREST TREE IMPROVEMENT

DR. AB. RASIP BIN AB. GHANI

DIRECTOR

FOREST PLANTATION PROGRAMME

BIOTECHNOLOGY DIVISION

FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE MALAYSIA (FRIM)

KEPONG, 52109 SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN, MALAYSIA

TEL: +603-62797097 FAX: +603-62731427

EMAIL: rasip@frim.gov.my

slide2

GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TREE IMPROVEMENT

  • Forest Genetic
  • Forest tree breeding
  • Tree Improvement
  • Step involving in TI
  • Why we need tree improvement?
  • Important consideration
slide3

Tree Improvement (TI)

Forest Genetic – genetic studies of forest trees

Forest tree breeding – studies on some specific problem to produce a specially desired product

Tree Improvement – combination of all silviculture and tree breeding skill to grow the most valuable forest product as quickly as possible and as inexpensive as possible

slide4

Step involving in TI

  • Species determination – geographic source
  • Variability studies - amount, kind and causes of
  • variability
  • Packaging of desired quality into improved
  • individual
  • Mass production of improved individuals
  • Developing and maintaining a genetic base population broad enough for needs in advanced generation
slide5

Why do we need TI?

  • Intensive tree farming
  • Production of the desired quality timber in maximum amounts in the shortest period of time at reasonable cost

TI:-

  • Improved yields and quality on the more productive forested area
  • Can grow tree on land that are sub-marginal and no economic for timber production
  • Develop strains that are more suitable for specialized products or uses
slide6

Important consideration:-

Time > Cost > Quality

slide7

VARIATION AND ITS USE

  • Genetic variability
  • Environmental variation
  • Variation caused by man
  • Racial variation
  • Mating system
  • Factors shaping variation
  • Selection
slide8

Basis for selection

  • Especially on the economic traits
  • Must determine the amount, cause and the nature of variation
  • The variations in tree species are generally high
    • Strategy for survival
    • Long life
    • Expose to various environmental condition
    • Giving more opportunity for selection
  • Basis of variation
    • At cell level >>>>>> Chromosomes and gene
slide9

Causes and kinds of variability

Basically the differences among tree resulted from

  • The differing environments in which the trees are growing
  • The genetic differences among trees
  • The interaction between the tree gene types and environment in which they grow

P = G + E + GxE

G = genetic

E= environment

GxE = interaction between G&E

slide10

Environmental variation

Soil >> Light >> H2O >> Space

Effect on tree – competition among trees.

Factors can be controlled in Silvicultural practices

slide11

Genetic Variability

Genetic variation = additive gene action +

non-additive gene action

2P = 2G + 2E

2G = 2GA + 2GNA

 2P = 2GA + 2GNA + 2E

Additive gene action = cumulative effects of all gene loci influencing trait

slide12

Non-additive divided by two

  • Dominance – interaction of specific affects at a gene locus
  • Epitasis – interactions among gene loci

Most characteristics of economic importance controlled by additive gene action

  • Additive variance can be used in simple selection. e.g. wood density, bole straightness
  • non- additive – e.g. growth rate

Pest resistance – both additive & non- additive

slide13

SOURCE OF PLANTING MATERIAL

  • Seed source
  • Strategies of acquiring planting material
  • Short-term strategy
  • Long-term strategy
slide14

Source of Seed

  • The importance of source of seed
  • Success of plantation depends on seed source
  • Largest, fastest and cheapest gain can be realized through proper species and seed sources
  • Terminology:
  • Adapted – how well trees are physiologically suited for high survival, good growth, resistance to P & D and adverse condition
  • Exotic - tree grown and of its natural range
  • Provenance, geographic source or geographic race
    • denote the original geographic areas from which seed or other propagules were obtained
  • Seed source – or origin
slide15

Racial variation

  • natural population
  • between individual within population variation – racial variation

Clines and ecotypes

Cline – a gradient in a measurable characteristic which follows environmental gradients.

Variation may/may not base on genetics.

Ecotype – a group of plants of similar genotype that occupy a specific ecological niche

  • Land race
  • A population of individuals that has become adapted to a specific environment in which it has been planted
  • Can be the easiest and best way of making quick and large genetic gains
slide16

Where races are developed best?

  • Species with very wide range over environments
  • Species growing a wide altitudinal range
  • Species that grown in regions of greatly diverse soils
  • Where to select?
  • Safest method is to select local source
  • Outside source that have been proven better
  • From center of origin
slide17

Steps to select seed source

  • Make decision about the objective of the plantings and the products desired
  • Obtain all information possible
  • Survey the area for any plantation of desired species- develop S.P.A
  • Determine the variation within the seed source or provenance
  • Operationally used seed from initial land race or best potential provenance while better source being developed (through breeding activity)
slide19

Selection

  • Mass selection
  • Family selection
  • Sib selection
  • Progeny testing
  • Within-family selection
  • Family plus Within-family selection
slide20

Selection of Plus tree

  • Candidate Plus tree
    • A tree that has been selected for grading because of its desirable phenotypic qualities but has not yet been graded or tested.
  • Selected, superior or plus tree
    • A tree has been recommended for production or breeding orchard use following grading. It has superior phenotype for growth, form, wood quality or other desired characteristics and appears to be adaptable.
  • Elite tree
    • Plus tree that has been proven to be genetically superior by mean of progeny testing.
  • Comparison trees
    • Trees that are located in the same stand and against which the candidate plus tree is graded.
  • Advance
    • Generation selection – A tree selected from genetic test of crosses among parents from previous generations.
slide21

Selection

  • 1. Individual tree selection / mass selection
  • Even – aged stands
    • Concentrated on stands and plantation that average or better performance
    • Same site quality to the plantation
    • Known seed source
    • Medium – aged stands
    • Pure species composition
    • Avoid logged over stand
    • Large enough for selection and comparison trees
    • Emphasis on high seed production
    • Thorough and systematic search
    • Used comparison tree method
slide22

A

C

B

Regression line

Volume growth

Age of trees

  • Uneven aged stand
    • Regression selection system
slide25

2. Family selection

the choice of entire families on the basis of their average phenotypic values

3. Sib Selection

individuals are chosen on the basis of the performance of their siblings and not on their own performance

4. Progeny testing

Selection of parent trees based upon the performance of their progeny

slide26

5. Within-family selection

Individual are chosen on the basis of their deviation from the family mean, and family values per se are given no weight when selections are made

6, Family plus Within-family selection

Two-stage method involve selection on families followed by selection of individuals within families

slide27

Strategies in satisfying the need of planting material

  • Short term strategies
  • Proven provenances (provenance trial/ GxE interaction)
  • Acacia mangium : Oriomo river (PNG)
  • Claudi River (Northern Territories, Aust)
  • Pinus caribaea : Hondurus
  • 2. Land Races
  • A. mangium
  • Rubber
  • Oil palm
slide28

3. Plus trees

    • Seed, vegetative materials
  • 4. Seed Production Areas/Seed Stands
  • poor phenotypes are rogued from the stand and good trees are left to intermate.
slide30

Long Term Strategies

1) Clone establishment

From Plus/Elite trees

Vegetative propagation

Macro - grafting

- layering

- cutting

Clone banks/ Research orchards

Clone test

slide31

Clonal Forestry

  • Uniformity
  • Adaptation
  • Cost
  • Wood production
  • Deployment of GMO’s
  • Deployment of hybrids and expensive rare seed
  • The opportunity to gain a better understanding of individual genotype overtimes and oversight
slide32

Teak tissue cultures multiplied in test tubes

Biotechnology

Tissue culture

Teak tissue cultured plants ready for

field planting

Teak plantation

established

slide33

2) Seed orchard

a) Seedling seed orchard

Plus trees/elite trees

Seed

Set up seed orchard

Progeny trial

Improved seed orchards

b) Clonal seed orchard

Plus trees/elite trees

Vegetative material

Set up seed orchard

Progeny trial

Improved seed orchards

slide34

Acacia hybrid

  • Hybrids
  • To combine complimentary traits of two parents
  • To exploit hybrid vigour (heterosis)
  • Increase the adaptability for afforestation into marginal areas for that species
slide35

QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF TREE IMPROVEMENT

  • Experimental design
  • Genetic values
  • Heritability
  • Selection differential and selection intensity
  • Genetic gain
  • Method to obtain gain
  • Mating design
slide36
Experimental Design
  • CRD
  • RCBD
  • Incomplete Block Design
  • Latticed Design
  • Row and Column Design
slide37

Statistical aspect of FTI

Genetic value

- To get the best set of parent trees for breeding.

P = G + E + GxE

Progeny trial

- Evaluate the parents through the performance of the progenies.

- eliminate the E effect by giving the same environment

Genetic value is express in term of Combining ability

General Combining Ability (GCA) – the average performance of the progeny of individual when it is mated to a number of other individual in the population.

slide38

Specific Combining Ability –the average performance of the progeny of a cross between two specific parents that are different from what would be expected on the basis of their general combining ablity alone.

e.g:

slide39

For parent 2 (male)

GCA = mean of parent 2 – test mean

= 17 – 13 = +4

parent 2 has general ability (GCA2) for volume of +4

Breeding value of an individual is defined as twice its general combining ability.

Breeding value = 2 (GCA)

BV parent 2 = 2 (GCA2)

= 2 x 4 = 8

slide40

SCA – it always refer to specific cross and never to a particular parent by itself.

3 steps in calculating the SCA :

e.g Cross between parents 3 and 6 ( a cross value of 12)

Calculate the GCA for both parents

GCA3= -3; GCA6 = -1

Calculate the anticipated value of the cross

(Summation of test mean and the GCA for both parents)

Anticipated value = test mean + GCA3 + GCA6

= 13 + (-3) + (-1) = 9

slide41

Subtract the value calculated in (2) from observed value of the cross.

SCA3x6 = observed value – anticipated value

= 12 – 9 = +3

This means that cross 3 x 6 is performing 3 volume unit better than would be expected based on the GCA’s of parents 3 and 6.

slide42

Genotype X Environment interaction

The relative performance of clones, families, provenance or species differ when they are planted in different environment.

Situation 1

Situation 2

slide45

Heritability

  • 1) Broad-sense (H2)
    • The ratio of all genetic variance to the phenotypic variance
  • 2) Narrow-sense (h2)
    • The ratio of additive genetic variance to phenotypic variance
slide46

Selection differential

The difference between the mean of selected individual and the population mean

_ _

S= Xs- X

slide47

Genetic gain

      • G= h2 x S
      • Or
      • G= i h2P
      • i = intensity of selection
      • h2 = heritability
      • P = phenotypic standard deviation
slide48
Method to obtain gain
  • Mass selection followed by testing
  • Phenotypic selection followed by vegetative propagation and testing
  • Making special crosses
slide49
Mating design
  • Open pollinated mating
  • Polycross (pollen mix) design
  • Nested design
  • Factorial design
  • Single-pair mating
  • Diallel
slide50

TREE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY

  • Objective
  • Factors for consideration
slide51
Factors for Consideration
  • Objectives of plantation
  • Manpower
  • Financial
  • Land
  • Time